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    In most of Egypt the Egyptians who were not among the nobility were often illiterate working people agricultural workers, laborers, miners, sailors, or serfs

    Before 1500 BC in the intermediate periods the foreign kings or Hyksos had been powerful in Egypt at places like Sais and Avaris  because they established and  controlled what the Greeks called emporia, the ports and points of entry that controlled international trade.

    Generally small villages along the Nile were not well enough organized  to resist the domination of the sea peoples Libyans and other proto Greek foreign adventurers.

    Not only along the Mediterranea Sea where there was trade with Canaan, Libya, Syria, Lebanon and points beyond through intermediaries but also along the Chain of Aphrodite, the string of oasis bordering the Red Sea there was trade with Thebes furnishing supplies to the mortuary trade in Karnak which had tombs, temples and mortuaries galore.

    The Chain of Aphrodite running south from the tip of the Sinai included Myos Hormos, Bernice, Ptolomais, Adulis, Avalities, Malao or  Marsa Alam, Mudus and Mdsylium

    Thebes was linked to several ports but in terms of the Exodus specifically Ptolomais or as it was known then Pi ha Harorth, the mouth of Hathor reached by the wadi Hadramat and located opposite Baal Zephon so that the temple of the god of the west wind was across from that of his consort Asherah or Hathor.

    The oasis were full of sacred groves of tall straight palm trees suitable for use as masts known as teraphim.

    During the disruptions in the 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th and 17th dynasties hordes of Libyans and other foreign bandits expenaded their interests in Egypt raided the villages of the delta set themselves and their crews up as barons and lived like kings

    In the urban emporia the Hyksos trading houses furnished professional classes, foreign workers, scribes and skilled administrators, the priests, skilled craftsmen, merchants, lawyers, investment bankers, diplomats and mercenary troops.

    In the 17th Dynasty the Hyksos were defeated and driven out of the delta. In the 18th Dynasty Thebes continued as  the capital of Egypt based on its monopoly of the mummification industry at Karnak which was located across the Nile.

    Recent excavations have pushed the history of Karnak back to around 3200 BC (4), when there was a small settlement on the bank of the Nile where Karnak now stands.

    Two brick-built mastaba tombs dating from the 3rd or 4th dynasty have been found in the Theban area, and a small group of tombs have been found dating from the 5th and 6th Dynasties in the area of the necropolis known as el-Khokha. In addition, no buildings survive in Thebes older than the portions of the Karnak temple complex, which date from the Middle Kingdom, although the lower part of a statue of King Niuserre of the 5th Dynasty has been found in Karnak.(2)

    The 18th dynasty mortuary temples at Karnak are famous, richly decorated and full of tales of Egypts campaigns against the Hyksos and other foreign invaders.

    Live Free or Die --- Investigate, Incarcerate

    by rktect on Tue Mar 26, 2013 at 08:18:01 AM PDT

    [ Parent ]

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