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  •  advanced research (1+ / 0-)
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    ARPA - The Advanced Research Projects Agency:

    The Financial Backbone of U.S. Computer Research

    The single most influential agency in the history of computer development in the United States is the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).

    ARPA is the central research and development organization for the U.S. Department of Defense. Established in February 1958 by President Eisenhower, and later supported by the Kennedy Administration, ARPA's creation was in direct response to the launching of "Sputnik" by the former U.S.S.R.

    ARPA: 1976-1985

    During the late 70's and early 1980's, ARPA's research focus included Command, Control and Communications (CIC) systems, tactical armor and anti-armor programs, infrared sensing for space-based surveillance, high-energy laser technology for space-based missile defense, anti- submarine warfare, advanced cruise missiles, advanced aircraft, defense applications of advanced computing, stealth technology, very large scale integration (VSLI), charged particle beam research and other areas.

    ARPA's research focus also included information processing, aircraft related programs, hypersonic research, satellites and submarine technology.

    In 1985, about $600 million was approved for strategic computer research in the U.S., including research into gallium arsenide semiconductors and parallel processing. ARPA's current focus is on revolutionary new technologies, including electronics and materials processing, computers, sensors, communication devices.

    ARPA Today

    In support of its mission, ARPA has developed and transferred technology programs encompassing a wide range of scientific disciplines which address the full spectrum of national security needs.

    ARPA manages and directs selected basic and applied research and development projects, and pursues research and technology where risk and payoff are both very high.

    The expert system DART, was used to assist the U.S. military in the logistics planning surrounding the Desert Storm operation.

    Today, ARPA is the lead Department of Defense agency for advanced technology research and has leadership responsibility for the HPCC (High Performance Computing and Communications) Program.

    The HPCC Program is designed to stimulate the aggressive advance of the high performance computing and communications technology base. T

    he technologies include scalable technologies for high performance computing and networking along with system software to support the effective application of the high performance technologies to large scale problems.

    GOP use a trick that works.They tell their base that the media and institutions of learning favor liberals, and in doing so, "attacks" on GOP are perceived as false and stemming from so-called liberalism. This trick has important consequences.

    by anyname on Tue Oct 15, 2013 at 01:47:26 AM PDT

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    •  quiet wars (1+ / 0-)
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      Top Secret: Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars

      This is the top secret manual found by accident in 1986 by an employee of Boeing Aircraft who bought a surplus IBM copier for scrap parts and found the manual inside. Much of it has come to pass - it planned to control the masses through manipulation of industry, education and politics, and to divert the public's attention from what's really going on.



      Silent weapon technology has evolved from Operations Research (O.R.), a strategic and tactical methodology developed under the Military Management in England during World War II. The original purpose of Operations Research was to study the strategic and tactical problems of air and land defense with the objective of effective use of limited military resources against foreign enemies (i.e., logistics).

      It was soon recognized by those in positions of power that the same methods might be useful for totally controlling a society. But better tools were necessary.

      Social engineering (the analysis and automation of a society) requires the correlation of great amounts of constantly changing economic information (data), so a high-speed computerized data-processing system was necessary which could race ahead of the society and predict when society would arrive for capitulation.

      Relay computers were to slow, but the electronic computer, invented in 1946 by J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly, filled the bill.

      The next breakthrough was the development of the simplex method of linear programming in 1947 by the mathematician George B. Dantzig.

      Then in 1948, the transistor, invented by J. Bardeen, W.H. Brattain, and W. Shockley, promised great expansion of the computer field by reducing space and power requirements.

      With these three inventions under their direction, those in positions of power strongly suspected that it was possible for them to control the whole world with the push of a button.

      Immediately, the Rockefeller Foundation got in on the ground floor by making a four-year grant to Harvard College, funding the Harvard Economic Research Project for the study of the structure of the American Economy. One year later, in 1949, The United States Air Force joined in.

      In 1952 the grant period terminated, and a high-level meeting of the Elite was held to determine the next phase of social operations research. The Harvard project had been very fruitful, as is borne out by the publication of some of its results in 1953 suggesting the feasibility of economic (social) engineering. (Studies in the Structure of the American Economy - copyright 1953 by Wassily Leontief, International Science Press Inc., White Plains, New York).

      Engineered in the last half of the decade of the 1940's, the new Quiet War machine stood, so to speak, in sparkling gold-plated hardware on the showroom floor by 1954.

      With the creation of the maser in 1954, the promise of unlocking unlimited sources of fusion atomic energy from the heavy hydrogen in sea water and the consequent availability of unlimited social power was a possibility only decades away.

      The combination was irresistible.

      The Quiet War was quietly declared by the International Elite at a meeting held in 1954.

      Although the silent weapons system was nearly exposed 13 years later, the evolution of the new weapon-system has never suffered any major setbacks.

      This volume marks the 25th anniversary of the beginning of the Quiet War. Already this domestic war has had many victories on many fronts throughout the world.

      GOP use a trick that works.They tell their base that the media and institutions of learning favor liberals, and in doing so, "attacks" on GOP are perceived as false and stemming from so-called liberalism. This trick has important consequences.

      by anyname on Tue Oct 15, 2013 at 02:01:34 AM PDT

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      •  maser & laser (1+ / 0-)
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        Focus: Invention of the Maser and Laser


        The ubiquitous laser, appearing today in supermarket checkout machines, CD players, and eye surgeon’s offices, developed out of the maser, which was first described in Physical Review papers published in 1954 and 1955. The maser–the name stands for “microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”–in turn depended on an insight that came from Albert Einstein almost 40 years earlier. But the path from theory to application was far from straightforward, and it took ingredients from many different disciplines for these theoretically simple devices to achieve practicality.

        After World War II, radar scientists looking for ways to generate electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths shorter than one centimeter began collaborating with physicists who wanted to use such radiation to investigate molecular structure. When atomic bonds inside a molecule flip between slightly different forms, they often absorb or emit centimeter- or millimeter-band radiation.

        Vacuum tubes and related devices, used in radar, are impractical for producing sub-centimeter wavelength radiation. But in the early 1950s, Charles Townes, then at Columbia University in New York City, had the idea that molecules themselves would make good emitters of the desired wavelengths, if only he could persuade large numbers of molecules to emit en masse.
        Masers serve as high precision frequency references. These "atomic frequency standards" are one of the many forms of atomic clocks. They are often used as low-noise microwave amplifiers in radio telescopes. Masers are being considered by a few countries for use as directed-energy weapons.


        Recent developments

        In 2012, a research team from the National Physical Laboratory and Imperial College London found a way to make a solid-state maser operate at room temperatures by using pentacene-doped p-Terphenyl as the amplifier medium.

        This development could possibly lead to a renewal of the maser technology into a wide range of applications, including communications and space exploration.

        GOP use a trick that works.They tell their base that the media and institutions of learning favor liberals, and in doing so, "attacks" on GOP are perceived as false and stemming from so-called liberalism. This trick has important consequences.

        by anyname on Tue Oct 15, 2013 at 02:09:06 AM PDT

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        •  laser controlled (1+ / 0-)
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          Laser-Controlled Humans Closer to Reality


          Flashes of light may one day be used to control the human brain, and that day just got a lot closer.

          Using lasers, researchers at the MIT Media Lab were able to activate a specific set of neurons in a monkey’s brain. Though the technique has been used to control and explore neural circuits in fish, flies and rodents, this is the first time the much-hyped technology has ever been used in primates.

          “It paves the way for new therapies that could target a number of psychiatric disorders,” said MIT neuroscientist Ed Boyden, who led the research with postdoctoral fellow Xue Han. “This is very exciting from a translational standpoint.”

          The beauty of this optogenetic technique is its specificity. By using a combination of lasers and genetic engineering, scientists can control, to the millisecond, the firing of a specific class of neurons, allowing them to pinpoint problematic cells and circuits while leaving innocent bystanders alone, thus minimizing potential side effects.

          Viruses are engineered to infect neurons with a special type of channel, originally discovered in algae, which is sensitive to blue light. Once a blue laser shines on the infected neurons, the channels snap open, ions rush into the cell, and the neuron fires.

          Crucial to the technique is that the virus is only injected into a very small part of the brain, and only a certain class of neurons, once infected, actually turn the channel on. The sharp laser beam further zeros in on a small portion of the brain. This precise aim is in contrast to current techniques, such as drugs and electrodes, both of which have a much broader reach.

          The optogenetic method was pioneered in 2005 by Boyden and Karl Deisseroth at Stanford University and has since been used to understand how circuits of neurons control various behaviors, such as learning in mice and predator escape in fish. But until now, scientists had never demonstrated the technique in primates — a move essential for developing therapeutic uses for the technology in humans.

          Boyden’s new research, published Wednesday in Neuron, demonstrates not only that the technology works in primates, but also that it is safe. The rhesus macaques received multiple rounds of injections and laser stimulations over the course of eight or nine months without damaging the neurons or activating the brain’s immune system, an obvious concern when viruses are involved.

          “Many disorders are associated with changes in specific cell types,” said Boyden. “For therapeutic purposes, you want to affect certain cells, but you want to leave normal cells intact. The ability to use light to turn specific cells on and off with very precise timing could in principle allow new therapies.”

          Future applications could involve using light-emitting neural prosthetics to replace the electrodes used in deep brain stimulation, which currently activate or silence a broad range of neurons. Deep brain stimulation has shown promise in treatments of Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and depression, but it has a number of side effects, stemming in part from its lack of specificity.

          “Our ability to remedy problems in the brain may ultimately be limited by how many side effects occur,” said Boyden. “We could find ways to shut down seizures but the side effects might be intolerable. By pinpointing specific cell types, we could craft therapeutic neuromodulators and directly develop therapies, while preserving a high degree of well-being.”

          Proving the method works in primate brains paves the way not only for cleaner therapies, but also for understanding the relationship between specific neural circuits and behaviors, particularly higher cognitive functions.

          GOP use a trick that works.They tell their base that the media and institutions of learning favor liberals, and in doing so, "attacks" on GOP are perceived as false and stemming from so-called liberalism. This trick has important consequences.

          by anyname on Tue Oct 15, 2013 at 02:14:00 AM PDT

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          •  controlling the brain with light (1+ / 0-)
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            Controlling the Brain with Light [Preview]


            In Brief

            Neuroscientists have long been frustrated by their inability to study how the brain works in sufficiently precise detail. Unexpectedly, a solution has emerged from basic genetic research on micro­organisms that rely on light-responsive “opsin” proteins to survive.

            By inserting opsin genes into the cells of the brain, scientists can now use flashes of light to trigger firing by specific neurons on command.

            This technology, optogenetics, permits researchers to conduct extremely precise, cell type–targeted experiments in the brains of living, freely moving animals—which electrodes and other traditional methods do not allow.


            Single Worm Neurons Remotely Controlled with Lasers

            GOP use a trick that works.They tell their base that the media and institutions of learning favor liberals, and in doing so, "attacks" on GOP are perceived as false and stemming from so-called liberalism. This trick has important consequences.

            by anyname on Tue Oct 15, 2013 at 02:19:14 AM PDT

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