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View Diary: Ancient America: 8,000 Years Ago (33 comments)

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  •  Ancient America/Indians 101 (57+ / 0-)

    When the first Europeans began to arrive in the Americas, they did not come to a New World, but an ancient one. Native Americans had lived here for thousands of years. This series looks at some of the early Native American civilizations and archaeological sites.  

    Some other essays about Ancient America:

    5,000 Years Ago

    1,000 Years Ago

    2,000 Years Ago

    •  When do you think people first arrived (7+ / 0-)

      Long ago when I was going to school they used to talk about a land bridge from Beringa being the same as that used by horses and other animals to cross from Siberia.

      By the nineties people were talking about maritime routes and the arctic small tool tradition.

      Several years ago lithic analysis of tool kits has shown that there may be an association with the Soultrian tradition of Europe.

      A consideration of the technological features of early New World Paleo-Indian lithic industries suggests that these industries may be viewed as the end-point of an expansion of generalized Upper Paleolithic cultures across the arctic environment of Northern Asia, which reached Beringia about 12,500 B.C. The similarities between Northern Spanish Solutrean and early Paleo-Indian industries may be the result of similar temperate zone adaptations of basically similar arctic-oriented antecedent industries. The technological and typological relationships of New and Old World lithic materials are likely to remain vague until standardized techniques of observation can be applied in both areas.

      Back in the seventies I had an opportunity to observe swordfish beaks in shell middens on Monhegan Island at the Stanley site, which is a Moorhead or red paint site dating to between 13,000 and 7,500 years BP.

      Swordfish are a bluewater species, in order to take them you need to go to sea in a boat. My question is whether maritime traditions are equally valid for the east coast as for the west coast.

      The earliest dates for remains in Beringa are later than those for the Clovis culture in the southwest. Even in Fladmarks refugia in the Queen Charlotte islands the dates are earlier.

      How did native Americans make it from coast to coast so quickly?

      Live Free or Die --- Investigate, Incarcerate

      by rktect on Thu Apr 07, 2011 at 02:42:03 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  The Ojibwa and related tribes have an oral (9+ / 0-)

        history that says they came from the EAST. I predict the science will eventually back up that oral tradition.

      •  I have been (11+ / 0-)

        suggesting that archaeologists should be looking at coastal routes now for more than 40 years. When I first brought this up in professional meetings, I was a minority, but now I suspect that this may be the majority viewpoint.

        As pengiep notes, my own people have an oral traditional that locates them on the Atlantic Ocean and then traces a migration west.

        •  what I have read someplace (3+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          MT Spaces, Ojibwa, rktect

          is that Ojibwe migrated from the St. Lawrence River area about 500 years ago to settle in NW Ontario, SW Manitoba, the upper peninsula of Michigan, the northern third of Wisconsin and the northern two-thirds of Minnesota. The Dakota (sioux) Indians migrated into southern Minnesota from near the Gulf Coast area.  About the same time the Dakota appeared the earlier residents, the Cheyenne, departed for Wyoming.  This was not because of any conflict, the Lakota/Dakota/Nekota remain allies of the Cheyenne to this day.

          •  Until the American Civil War and the railroads (1+ / 0-)
            Recommended by:

            Water routes were the principal means of transport everywhere except on the ice where dog sleds were used. When the Vikings arrived more than a millenia ago the Abenaki were on the waterways in New England with ocean going canoes.

            The The Paleo Arctic peoples had migrated north from both east and west as early as 10,000 BC, but the earliest known occupation of the Aleutians is c 8,000 BP, thousands of years after the Clovis are in the Southwest.

            Early Settlement of Eastern Arctic (ca. 4000 B.P.)

                At same time Arctic Small Tool Tradition appears in the west, it shows up in minor occurrences on the shores of Arctic ocean, along the Canadian archipelago, and in western Greenland.  Causes and circumstances of these early migrations are unknown.

                Apart from poor knowledge about initial settlement, the Arctic Small Tool Tradition of the east is divided into two stages:

                     Independence I Stage (4000 to 3700 B.P.)
                     Pre-Dorset (3700 to ca. 2600 B.P.)

                Independence I Stage (4000 to 3700 B.P.)

                    The northernmost of early hunters in the Arctic
                    Highly mobile, small groups, subsisting off of musk ox, and occasionally sea birds, ring seal, arctic char, and other aquatic resources
                    Depended on accumulation of winter stores of meat;  coming as close as 434 miles from North Pole, these people likely “hibernated” during the 2.5 months of darkness in mid-winter

                Pre-Dorset (3700 to ca. 2600 B.P.)

                    Core of early settlement:  islands of northern Hudson Bay, northern and southern shores of Baffin Island, northern Labrador, and west coast of Foxe basin
                    Seal hunters (using barbed thrusting harpoons at winter breathing holes)
                    Caribou, musk ox, polar bear, and small mammals taken with spears and bow and arrow
                    Arctic char taken in mass for use in fall months (before ocean froze)

            That doesn't explain the settlements in places like Seabrook, NH and Salisbury, MA which go back 13,000 BP

            New England Paleo Indians  are already in place before the Arctic Small Tool tradition

            The prehistory of southern New England is divided into seven periods, each identified by characteristicstyles of projectile points, pottery and other artifacts. These periods are the Paleoindian (10,500-9000BP), Early Archaic (9000-8000 BP), Middle Archaic (8000-6000 BP), Late Archaic (6000-3000 BP),Early Woodland (3000-2000 BP), Middle Woodland (2000-1000 BP) and Late Woodland (1000-350BP). In addition to their artifacts, the periods are characterized by changing patterns of site location,activities and size. The final report for this project will contain a more detailed discussion of theprehistory of Massachusetts and how any prehistoric archaeology uncovered in the project area orimmediately around it, relates to larger trends that have been observed regarding the Ancient nativeAmerican settlement of New England

            When my ancestors arrived in Ontario in 1832 they used the same East West water routes James Philip Pratt mentions. The idea of long marches overland doesn't seem to have been a part of the picture, and the indigenous peoples hadn't domesticated any beasts of burden except dogs, not even reindeer like the Lapps. Though coming from the East at the end of the last ice age may have involved coasting along the ice that's about when the maritime populations of Europe began moving north.

            Live Free or Die --- Investigate, Incarcerate

            by rktect on Thu Apr 07, 2011 at 11:41:39 PM PDT

            [ Parent ]

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