OK

This is only a Preview!

You must Publish this diary to make this visible to the public,
or click 'Edit Diary' to make further changes first.

Posting a Diary Entry

Daily Kos welcomes blog articles from readers, known as diaries. The Intro section to a diary should be about three paragraphs long, and is required. The body section is optional, as is the poll, which can have 1 to 15 choices. Descriptive tags are also required to help others find your diary by subject; please don't use "cute" tags.

When you're ready, scroll down below the tags and click Save & Preview. You can edit your diary after it's published by clicking Edit Diary. Polls cannot be edited once they are published.

If this is your first time creating a Diary since the Ajax upgrade, before you enter any text below, please press Ctrl-F5 and then hold down the Shift Key and press your browser's Reload button to refresh its cache with the new script files.

ATTENTION: READ THE RULES.

  1. One diary daily maximum.
  2. Substantive diaries only. If you don't have at least three solid, original paragraphs, you should probably post a comment in an Open Thread.
  3. No repetitive diaries. Take a moment to ensure your topic hasn't been blogged (you can search for Stories and Diaries that already cover this topic), though fresh original analysis is always welcome.
  4. Use the "Body" textbox if your diary entry is longer than three paragraphs.
  5. Any images in your posts must be hosted by an approved image hosting service (one of: imageshack.us, photobucket.com, flickr.com, smugmug.com, allyoucanupload.com, picturetrail.com, mac.com, webshots.com, editgrid.com).
  6. Copying and pasting entire copyrighted works is prohibited. If you do quote something, keep it brief, always provide a link to the original source, and use the <blockquote> tags to clearly identify the quoted material. Violating this rule is grounds for immediate banning.
  7. Be civil. Do not "call out" other users by name in diary titles. Do not use profanity in diary titles. Don't write diaries whose main purpose is to deliberately inflame.
For the complete list of DailyKos diary guidelines, please click here.

Please begin with an informative title:

Intro

You must enter an Intro for your Diary Entry between 300 and 1150 characters long (that's approximately 50-175 words without any html or formatting markup).

Eboracum, Eoforwic, Jorvik, York; many names, one glorious city. The Romans, Saxons, Vikings and Normans all valued its strategic location at the confluence of the Fosse and Ouse rivers, in what became Yorkshire, and the place is like a giant layer cake of history.

Following the Roman invasion of what they called the island of Britannia - somewhere their merchants in Gaul had been trading with for some time - the Romans began a series of small wars or campaigns to subdue their new land. Sometimes they used 'honeyed words' and proposed alliances with the various Celtic tribes, if they thought that a campaign would be too costly. The Brigantes, whose homeland included the area where the River Fosse and the River Ouse meet, were first wooed and then when they rebelled, conquered by the famous IXth Legion, the 'Hispania' (Legio Nona Hispania). This is the Legion which has many legends attached to it, with some saying that it was destroyed during an expedition north of Hadrian's Wall (see, Rosemary Sutcliffe's 'Eagle of the Ninth' - but DON'T see the film!). Whatever its ultimate fate, the Ninth quickly built a wooden Legionary fortress on this site in 71 CE; this marked the beginnings of the great city of York.

Historical benchmarks followed with blinding speed; the IXth rebuilt the fortress in stone in 108 CE and gave the Roman 'colonia' its first city walls. It became a major Roman outpost, being designated as the capital of the Roman Province of 'Britannia Inferior'. Constantine the Great was proclaimed Emperor in Eboracum in 306 CE, after the death of his father, the Emperor Constantine Chlorus, in the city.

As quickly as they had come, the Romans withdrew, with the last Legions leaving their posts - and their Romanized British allies - behind in 410 CE, Eboracum was abandoned. A Saxon tribe from what is now the Province of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, the Angles, joined the general flood of peoples from the western shore of Europe to the now almost abandoned land. Under their rule, York Minster was founded in 627 CE, and the name for the city became Eoforwic.

In the 9th century a newer and even more war-like people, the Vikings from Scandinavia (in this case, mostly Denmark) laid waste to monasteries and coastal settlements and moved inland, using rivers like the Ouse and Trent to penetrate deep into Saxon territory. Eoforwic was conquered in 866 CE and was transformed into a major inland port with the import of amber and other goods and, I dare say, the export of slaves (as was done from Dublin). Another name change to Jorvik reflected the fact that the Danes had made it their capital city. Despite the fact that the Danes had strengthened the remains of the existing walls, their kingdom was not to last for too long, as King Edred of Northumbria forced Eric the Bloodaxe from his throne in 954 CE.

The coming of the Normans in 1066 was to prove to be the last great Continental invasion of Britain. William the Conqueror and his leigemen quickly threw up a series of motte and bailey castles all over their newly-won land, to emphasise their might and to demonstrate the imposition of the new Feudal system. The 'locals' in York were not very happy with this and in 1068 - just two years ofter the Conquest - they revolted. William put this uprising down - with extreme savagery.

The Norman city was by now the seat of the Archbishop of York, and the Minster became a great expression of ecclesiastical power and architectural genius. Of the original Roman wall little remains, but the later structure, from the 12th to the 14th centuries, is now around 2.5 miles long, and has some magnificent city gates and fortified towers located along its length. The wall is classified as a Scheduled Ancient Monument and a Grade 1 Listed Building by the British Government.

Here you see the remains of a Mediaeval round tower, close to the east bank of the River Ouse. The riverside walk passes beneath a short section of low wall which, judging by its smaller, well-finished stonework and the shape of the arch, probably dates from the Tudor period. The arrow slits in the curved tower walls have rounded ends; these are called oillets and this is a design feature which enabled archers to more easily aim their arrows at an approaching enemy. Since the development of the oillet can be easily dated, this means that they are from the 13th century at the earliest.

You are positively encouraged to walk the remaining sections of the wall, and this will offer you a magnificent view of the ancient city. If you ever get the chance to visit York, this is something NOT to be missed!

http://peoplesmosquito.org.uk

http://shortfinals.wordpress.com

Extended (Optional)

Originally posted to shortfinals on Thu Apr 18, 2013 at 09:59 PM PDT.

Also republished by History for Kossacks.

EMAIL TO A FRIEND X
Your Email has been sent.