This is only a Preview!

You must Publish this diary to make this visible to the public,
or click 'Edit Diary' to make further changes first.

Posting a Diary Entry

Daily Kos welcomes blog articles from readers, known as diaries. The Intro section to a diary should be about three paragraphs long, and is required. The body section is optional, as is the poll, which can have 1 to 15 choices. Descriptive tags are also required to help others find your diary by subject; please don't use "cute" tags.

When you're ready, scroll down below the tags and click Save & Preview. You can edit your diary after it's published by clicking Edit Diary. Polls cannot be edited once they are published.

If this is your first time creating a Diary since the Ajax upgrade, before you enter any text below, please press Ctrl-F5 and then hold down the Shift Key and press your browser's Reload button to refresh its cache with the new script files.


  1. One diary daily maximum.
  2. Substantive diaries only. If you don't have at least three solid, original paragraphs, you should probably post a comment in an Open Thread.
  3. No repetitive diaries. Take a moment to ensure your topic hasn't been blogged (you can search for Stories and Diaries that already cover this topic), though fresh original analysis is always welcome.
  4. Use the "Body" textbox if your diary entry is longer than three paragraphs.
  5. Any images in your posts must be hosted by an approved image hosting service (one of: imageshack.us, photobucket.com, flickr.com, smugmug.com, allyoucanupload.com, picturetrail.com, mac.com, webshots.com, editgrid.com).
  6. Copying and pasting entire copyrighted works is prohibited. If you do quote something, keep it brief, always provide a link to the original source, and use the <blockquote> tags to clearly identify the quoted material. Violating this rule is grounds for immediate banning.
  7. Be civil. Do not "call out" other users by name in diary titles. Do not use profanity in diary titles. Don't write diaries whose main purpose is to deliberately inflame.
For the complete list of DailyKos diary guidelines, please click here.

Please begin with an informative title:

About 1275 CE a group of American Indians, called Mogollon by archaeologists, constructed a small pueblo (village) in some cliffs in what is now New Mexico. The small pueblo was constructed in a rugged, steep-sided canyon, at an elevation of 5,700 to 6,000 feet. The pueblo consisted of about 46 rooms which were constructed in five caves. Archaeologists estimate that the pueblo was occupied by 10 to 15 families.


You must enter an Intro for your Diary Entry between 300 and 1150 characters long (that's approximately 50-175 words without any html or formatting markup).

 photo 800px-GilaCliffDwellings_NatlMonument_zps4cc88b0c.jpg

The cliff dwellings shown from below.

 photo 800px-GilaCliffDwellings_Interior_zps3dfab600.jpg

Shown above is the interior of one of the caves.

 photo interior2NPS_zps35c2ef99.jpg

Shown above is a National Park Service photo of the interior of one of the rooms.

 photo interiorNPS_zps1a8b3c95.jpg

Shown above is another room interior photograph from the National Park Service.

Mogollon emerged as an archaeologically identifiable culture in Arizona and New Mexico about 200 CE. During the early period, from 200 to 1000, they lived in deep pithouses which were grouped into small multi-family villages. Around 1000 CE, they began to build above-ground masonry pueblos. At this time the villages also become larger, an indication of improved agriculture.  

Economically, the Mogollon were engaged in hunting wild game, gathering wild plants, and raising some plants. At the Gila Cliff Dwellings, the people used some irrigated agriculture.

 photo MortorholesNPS_zps4a61b9ab.jpg

The holes in the rock shown above are bedrock mortars which were used by the Mogollon people for grinding corn as well as wild seeds. This is a National Park Service photo.

The Gila Cliff Dwellings are on the periphery of the Mimbres branch of Mogollon culture. Mimbres is well-known for its pottery with realistic images of animals, plants, and bugs. The Gila Cliff Dwellings were looted before the creation of the National Monument. This means that much valuable information about the connections between Mimbres and other cultures has been lost.

About 1300 CE, the Mogollon people abandoned the Gila Cliff Dwellings. Hopi oral traditions tell of migrations at this time due to changing climate. After the cliff dwellings were abandoned, the Apache occasionally entered the area after 1400 CE, but did not disturb the dwellings. The Apache presence in the area is recorded in the archaeological record with a single pictograph, a few pottery shards, and a burial which was vandalized by non-Indians.

The National Monument

The Gila Cliff Dwellings were first discovered by non-Indians in 1878 and by the 1890s, entrepreneurs were taking tourists to see the ruins. Tourists were “collecting” souvenirs from the ruins, including a couple of mummified bodies.  Peter Russell, in his administrative history of the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, writes:

“Unfortunately, within six years of the first recorded visit to the ruin in 1878, the site was thoroughly rifled.”
In 1906, the Gila Forest Supervisor reported to the chief forester in Washington, D.C. that the cliff dwellings warranted preservation to prevent further removal of artifacts by tourists, hunters, and prospectors. The Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument was established by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1907 under the 1906 Antiquities Act.

 photo 1914image_zps51a5576d.jpg

Shown above is a 1914 photograph of the Gila Cliff Dwellings from the National Park Service.

Cross Posted from
 photo NANfooterTEXT_zpsc9f6c5d5.jpg
Extended (Optional)

Originally posted to Native American Netroots on Sun Mar 23, 2014 at 08:33 AM PDT.

Also republished by History for Kossacks, National Parks and Wildlife Refuges, and Baja Arizona Kossacks.

Your Email has been sent.