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Each Sunday at 3:30 p.m., First Nations News & Views is posted at Daily Kos. The series is designed to provide a window into the world of American Indians, each edition reporting on a small number of stories, both the good and the not-so-good, and providing a reminder of where we came from, what we are doing now and what matters to us. The following diary is a rewritten version of two of those stories from the most recent, fourth edition. Other editions can be found here. I urge you to visit.
Sen. Henry Dawes of Massachusetts
 (Library of Congress)
February 8th marked the 125th anniversary of President Grover Cleveland's signing of the Dawes Act. You didn't get to read about that in the newspapers or hear about it on Fox News the way that, say, the 125th anniversary of Custer's "Last Stand" was covered a decade ago. But that single piece of legislation had a more devastating impact on Native Americans than anything other than the century-long Indian Wars themselves. And it was initiated by people who actually believed they had Indians' best interests at heart.

In the past year there has finally been a move to repair some of devastation caused by the Dawes Act, only the second move in nearly 80 years. I'll get to that in a minute. But, despite this belated remedial action (forced by the courts), much of the damage can never be fixed. Modern American Indian society was shaped in great part by what Cleveland signed into law that day five generations ago. Does what happened so long ago matter today? It matters to Indians.

Before the Dawes Act and a few additional laws were effectively repealed by the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, 90 million acres had been wrenched from communally owned Indian land, leaving just a third of what the tribes had held in 1886, the year Geronimo, the last organized warrior, surrendered and was shipped off to prison. What land wasn't directly taken was "allotted" to individuals. Grabbing much of the land and dividing the rest coincided with a stepped-up effort to destroy Native culture, religion and governance, in effect, "Indianness." The land was never returned. Today, many reservations are peppered with non-Indian enclaves as a consequence.

Named after Sen. Henry L. Dawes, who headed the U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, the law was the culmination of practices toward Indians that had begun within a decade of the Pilgrim landing at Plymouth. Boiled down to their essence, those policies said to Indians: Get out of our way, or else. Even getting out of the way often wasn't enough to prevent the "or else."

The Dawes Act itself arose at least partly out of the influence of a book written by Helen Hunt Jackson in 1881, A Century of Dishonor. It was the Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee of the 19th Century, documenting the bloodthirsty avarice and corruption that had suffused Indian-U.S. relations all those decades since the first war in 1788. Originally, the book was about brutal removal of the Ponca tribe to Oklahoma, but Jackson later expanded her coverage to other atrocities. She didn't live to see the Dawes Act passed, but she would no doubt have approved.

The intent was assimilation, "killing the Indian to save the man," turning Indians into farmers of acreage they held individually, altering gender roles, shattering kinship connections, breaking up communal land and tribal government, and, ultimately, wiping out reservations altogether. Officials thought this would be better for everyone as Indians adopted norms of the dominant culture. It would certainly be good for transferring some prime real estate.

Helen Hunt Jackson's 1881 exposé
What the new law did was allot 160 acres to each head of household and 80 acres to each single adult over 18. Sometimes, if the land was desert or nearly so, the acreage was doubled. The allotted land was to be held in federal trust for 25 years, after which ownership and citizenship would go to Indians still working their allotment.

To take full possession of any land a woman had to be officially married. All inherited land passed through the male head of household. This broke the tradition of tribes with matrilineal heritages.

"Surplus" land, that is, the clever euphemism for what was left after allotments, was flung open to white settlement and ownership. That was the provision's most likeable quality for congressmen and businessmen who would just have soon have slaughtered or starved every Indian still then alive. Half the Great Sioux Reservation was thus sold to outsiders after Indian allotments were distributed.

As Youngstown University Asst. Prof. G. Mehera Gerardo has noted, even before the ink was dry on the act, speculators were making deals to trade or buy Indian lands. But they mostly postponed development for fear the government would confiscate what they had shadily acquired before the trust period expired. Thus were many Indians able to keep to their traditional ways of life for another decade, treating the land as if it were still held communally, even though they'd already bargained their allotments away. State and local governments soon found ways around the law to permit outsiders to buy allotments. Hemmed in by fences, cut off by private ownership of forests and riverine areas, Indians now found themselves no longer able to subsist on hunting and fishing.

Meanwhile, funds from the sale of reservation land, which were supposed to benefit the tribes, were mismanaged, often not paid for decades, sometimes outright embezzled. Much of it simply "went missing." Money that did make it to the proper federal accounts was often used for things Indians did not find worthwhile. The late historian Melissa L. Meyer wrote, “Facile generalizations about Anishinaabe dependence on welfare gratuities mask the fact that they essentially financed their own ‘assimilation.'”

Thanks to the lobbying of those for whom no amount of freed-up Indian land was enough, new federal legislation was passed in 1906 to allow Indians to sell their allotments well before the end of the trust period. Many, hating farming or broke from trying, sold at rock-bottom prices. Those who had actually received land suitable for farming, and much of it was not, couldn't afford the tools, seed, animals and other supplies required. Small government grants were insufficient and most could obtain no credit. They had received no training. Even if parents knew how to farm, children coerced into boarding schools came home years later without the necessary skills. Inherited land was often divided among too many heirs to be large enough to farm.

The dispossession was wildly successful. Partly as a consequence of the act, by 1900 the American Indian population had fallen to its lowest point in U.S. history, about 237,000.

The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 stopped the allotment process. Once again tribes were able to own land communally. New governance structures were established. These presented some problems for traditional leadership but they at least allowed Indians to choose their own leaders who could then engage in government-to-government relationships with Washington, D.C. In the 1950s and '60s, the termination acts sought to overturn the effects of Indian reorganization, obliterating the legal status of 109 tribes and taking another 2.5 million acres out of trust status. A few tribes regained their tribal status, but most smaller bands did not.

Fast forward to the beginning of February.

Elouise Cobell
The Interior Department announced Feb. 2 that it plans to spend $1.9 billion to buy fractionated American Indian lands and restore them to the tribes. The program stems from the historic $3.4 billion settlement in Cobell v. Salazar, a class-action lawsuit filed over a century's worth of gross mismanagement of royalties for Indian trust lands. The suit was brought by the late Elouise Cobell (Niitsítapi [Blackfoot]), also known as Yellow Bird Woman.

The proposal is open for public comment until March 15. Nothing will move forward on it until four appeals of the Cobell settlement are dealt with. A key issue in those suits is that the settlement failed to uncover even a close approximation of how much money got "lost" from the federal land trust accounts.

The fractionation emerged out the tribe-smashing Dawes Act. Over several generations, the heirs of these allotments found themselves owning smaller and smaller plots unsuitable for farming or any other commercial uses and unsalable because of the logistics of getting all owners to agree. Original allotments ranged from 80 to 320 acres, depending on the status of the individual Indian and the location of the land. Some allotments now have as many as 1000 owners, many of whom are unaware they even own their small piece. The Associated Press says the Interior Department has identified 88,638 fractionated land tracts owned by nearly 2.8 million people.

Over 10 years, the program will work first on tracts with the most owners, targeting land that will take the least preparatory effort to gain a controlling interest. No individuals will be forced to sell their allotments. Once a buy is completed, the land will be returned to communal ownership by the tribe, the very thing the Dawes Act tried to destroy.

John Dossett, the general counsel for the Native Congress of American Indians, said the draft proposal appears to address most of the tribes' major concerns. Of particular importance was that the tribes be involved in implementing and administering the land consolidation program through cooperative agreements, which are addressed in the draft plan.

"It's a problem that has been sitting around for a hundred years or more," he said. "I think tribes are really interested in doing this right. You don't get a do-over on $1.9 billion."

Cobell died in October a few months after the settlement was approved by a federal judge.

As far as the other damages, to culture, to language, to kinship ties, to connections of place, no compensation can ever make up for that.

Originally posted to Native American Netroots on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 05:19 PM PST.

Also republished by Barriers and Bridges.

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Comment Preferences

  •  This: (39+ / 0-)
    As far as the other damages, to culture, to language, to kinship ties, to connections of place, no compensation can ever make up for that.
    No, it can't.  My father's family, who refused to be rounded up and fled, preferring "hiding" [in plain sight, so to speak] to being herded onto a reservation that constituted only one small part of their ancestral lands.  My mother's grandmother, stolen from her people in infancy.  Broken families, broken words, broken cultures, broken spirits, broken lives.

    And yet, we are still here.

    Authentic Native American silverwork, jewelry, photography, and other art here.

    by Aji on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 05:30:28 PM PST

  •  The impact of Dawes (17+ / 0-)

    just boggles the mind.

    I'm reviewing some laws (I'm not a lawyer, just reviewing the laws for a project) that takes me into looking at the impact of allotment, sale of surplus lands to non-tribal interests, severed surface and mineral estates, etc... and the trust responsibility.

    No surprise that the Tribes tended to get the worst lands allotted to them.  The best lands surplussed for sale.

    1934 Indian Reorganization Act was a start.  But it's long over due that the Feds are trying to something more about the checkerboard.  I must confess that I don't know the reach of all of the 1934 act...

    I have a good friend who is Salish.  He has allotment land in Montana.  I asked him what it would take to buy the land in fee.  He kind of laughed and said that it was a process that nobody wants to go through.    Lots of resistance from the Tribe and nebulous BIA bureaucracy, among other reasons.

    He then told me the joke about when Custer left the Agency in South Dakota and headed for Montana...

    A hungry man is an angry man. (Bob Marley)

    by montanamatt on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 05:45:05 PM PST

  •  Has there been any modifications (6+ / 0-)

    to the Dawes Rolls?  

  •  The Dawes Act & Manifest Destiny are part of.. (18+ / 0-)

    ..the same agenda according to: Alice Koskela, Legal Counsel for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, discusses the nature of land ownership on the reservation, of which an understanding the Dawes Act, also known as the Allotment Act, is critical. It is this act which opened up the reservation for white settlement and resulted in tremendous loss of Indian owned land.

    It was also an act of lawfare—a relatively new term for an old phenomenon: warfare by legal means. It makes “what was illegal legal,” according to Philip Giraldi, a writer and former CIA military intelligence officer.

    As an example of making the illegal legal, Giraldi cites what John Yoo and Jay Bybee, lawyers in the Department of Justice’s Office of Legal Counsel during the George W. Bush administration, did when they issued legal judgments supporting torture. - emphasis added

    The Dawes Act subverted the Constitution’s acknowledgement of the sovereignty of Indian tribes and violated the federal government’s trust responsibility “to protect tribal treaty rights, lands, assets and resources.” Because of the Dawes Act, tribally owned land decreased from 138 million acres in 1887 to 48 million acres in 1934. It was a land-grab on a massive, almost unimaginable scale.
    I'm very grateful to learn about this history, and how all this went down. Nothing I'm bringing here is new to you guys Navajo & MB but I thought this advertizement fit right in to the white mans expansion and atomization of the Native Americans done to accomplish this so called "manifest destiny" -  theft by any means

    Thank you

  •  Jan. 17 = 119 years since U.S.-backed conspirators (8+ / 0-)

    … overthrew Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii, in effect bringing about the annihilation of Hawaii as an independent country, society, and culture.

    Perhaps ironically, it was President Grover Cleveland's administration that recognized this as a great wrong and blot upon the moral record of the American nation.

    Despite the words Public Law 103-150 and its acknowledgement of historical fact, to what extent does the U.S. genuinely regret having annexed Hawaii against the will of its people?

    Those concerned about China and Tibet may want to ask themselves what kind of an example or precedent America is setting in the case of Hawaii.

    The Dutch kids' chorus Kinderen voor Kinderen wishes all the world's children freedom from hunger, ignorance, and war.

    by lotlizard on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 07:25:13 PM PST

  •  population crash after first contact (non Viking) (5+ / 0-)

    is part of a theory that the population crash after contact left a lot of farmland and cleared areas to go fallow and start to regrow woody plants and cover exposed soil. North America ...well, all the Americas had huge populations compared to the next 100-2-- years.

    There certainly would be less fire and smoke from forest clearing and other wildland management techniques Americans used.

    Another part was that there was a similar effect after the Plague and Black Death depopulated much of northern europe.

    Interesting, I am sure not all who study that climate variations agree, heh, but first I'd heard of it.

    no link, might have been in Fish's diary in a comment...

    From those who live like leeches on the people's lives, We must take back our land again, America!...Langston Hughes

    by KenBee on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 07:51:15 PM PST

    •  Charles C. Mann covers this in his latest book (8+ / 0-)


      It is even speculated that the "Little Ice Age" (about 1550 to 1750) in Europe was caused by the sudden lack of burning across the Americas as Indigenous populations succumbed to the rapid spread of European illnesses, among them smallpox and malaria.

      Without the managed burning, the forest growth shot up, sucking carbon from the atmosphere.

      According to "1493,"

      In 2003, William F. Ruddiman, a paleoclimatologist at the University of Virginia, suggested [that depopulation and the lack of fires, rather than sunspots or volcanos, was responsible.]
      I cannot type out the whole thing, which is several pages, but there were broad areas of the Americas managed by Indians for their food where forest had been burned off.  As millions died and the forests reclaimed the land, vast quantities of carbon were removed from the atmosphere.

      What a Police State Looks Like: "On one side: soft human flesh, unprotected human skulls, cardboard signs, slogans they chant, armed with belief in 1st Amendment rights. On the other: helmets, body armor, guns, batons, chemical weapons." -- JanetRhodes

      by YucatanMan on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 08:51:37 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  Not as good as his 1491, but quite a good... (6+ / 0-), for that observation and many others. I thought, however, he kind of lost his focus in the last half.

        Don't tell me what you believe, show me what you do and I will tell you what you believe.

        by Meteor Blades on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 08:56:43 PM PST

        [ Parent ]

        •  Yes, I agree. A little repetitive and I swear (5+ / 0-)

          there's a whole page or two that occurs both earlier and later in the book. It's so long I haven't gone back to track it down.

          The general thesis is an interesting one:  Prior to Colon's adventures, each pocket of people generally lived in their "neighborhood."  Europeans were generally in Europe.  Africans in Africa.  Asians in Asia.

          But the Spanish (Italian) discoveries of Colon and the Conquistadors spread frequent, continual travel around the entire world.

          Chinese moved to the Philippines and then Mexico City. Africans were bought or kidnapped and replaced Europeans who died off at an over 80% rate.  Indigenous populations were decimated by new diseases.  Likewise, plants, insects, birds and animals were spread around the globe.

          The potato helped lift Europe out of constant famine cycles.  Demand for Silver in China spurred more silk and porcelean and spice trading.

          In a way, we're still in this "globalization" stage.  The sad thing is that the homogenization of all cultures is wiping out the differences that make the world so interesting.

          If we descend to McDonalds pink slime beef, video games, selfishness and narrowmindedness, there's no hope.

          The more I read the book, the more I felt I was reading the recipe for human extinction.  The consumption of resources is exploding out of bounds. It has to end.  But will we be able to intentionally, or will massive disasters cause it?

          I often feel we're living in a time similar to the collapse of the Mayan civilizations in the Post Classic.  The elite knew there was something wrong (too many people for the water and farming capacities), but demands for pageantry, for more soldiers, for wealth.... they just ignored reality, until drought brought the overpopulation crashing down upon their heads. They ignored reality and they refused to stop warring. *(Sound familiar?)

          Well, that's a cheery thought. :-)   So, then I just refocus on those who are important to me and trying to live our lives with a light imprint.

          The slide toward know-nothingness continues daily on Feaux News.

          What a Police State Looks Like: "On one side: soft human flesh, unprotected human skulls, cardboard signs, slogans they chant, armed with belief in 1st Amendment rights. On the other: helmets, body armor, guns, batons, chemical weapons." -- JanetRhodes

          by YucatanMan on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 10:45:07 PM PST

          [ Parent ]

      •  that was it thanks...nt (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        Eric Nelson, YucatanMan

        From those who live like leeches on the people's lives, We must take back our land again, America!...Langston Hughes

        by KenBee on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 09:59:32 PM PST

        [ Parent ]

  •  5.6 earthquake in remote norcal counties between (5+ / 0-)

    Eureka and Crescent City, inland 30 miles.
    Reservation country.

    no damage or injuries I know of...

    From those who live like leeches on the people's lives, We must take back our land again, America!...Langston Hughes

    by KenBee on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 08:00:15 PM PST

    •  I saw that at 1:30 PM PST today (4+ / 0-)
      Region:                            NORTHERN CALIFORNIA
      Geographic coordinates:            41.143N, 123.790W
      Magnitude:                        5.6 Mw
      Depth:                            28 km
      Universal Time (UTC):             13 Feb 2012  21:07:02
      Time near the Epicenter:          13 Feb 2012  13:07:02
      Local standard time in your area: 13 Feb 2012  21:07:02

      Location with respect to nearby cities:
         9 km (5 miles) SW (234 degrees) of Weitchpec, CA
        28 km (17 miles) NNW (343 degrees) of Willow Creek, CA
        29 km (18 miles) ENE (67 degrees) of Westhaven-Moonstone, CA
        50 km (31 miles) NE (38 degrees) of Eureka, CA
       349 km (217 miles) NW (326 degrees) of Sacramento, CA

  •  another effect of allotment... (14+ / 0-)

    Just before the Oklahoma land rush onto "surplus" lands made Oklahoma a white majority territory the Tribes had held a constitutional convention and were set to petition the Government for statehood. Oklahoma Territory had sufficient population and met every other requirement for statehood. Led by the Cherokee and the other five civilized tribes the new state was to be named "Sequoia" after the Cherokee genius and statesman who devised the Cherokee alphabet.

    I think history would have been quite different had the state of Sequoia been admitted and the USA had two Native American U.S. Senators and several Congressmen. For one thing Meteor Blades would probably be President and other good things would have come to pass.

    America could have chosen to be the worlds doctor, or grocer. We choose instead to be her policeman. pity

    by cacamp on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 08:19:19 PM PST

    •  The things in our history of which I had not the (6+ / 0-)

      slightest inkling...astonish me.

      What a lost opportunity that was, had it ever had a chance to be realized.

    •  90 million acres that is the size of Germany (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      cacamp, Meteor Blades, Eric Nelson, KenBee

      and Luxembourg together. Just to visualize ...

      •  and the blood shed for tiny bits of land (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        Eric Nelson

        tiny relative to the if they were so ready to kill other whites, and using the slightest of religious and 'royalty' pretexts, what likelihood was their they would treat anybody in Africa or the Americas even the same as other Europeans. Not likely, but with no world morality of any humanity..

        This was all going on about the same in fact a side by side listing of the timing and colonial strategies would be...I don't know...what's the word.....ah, history.

        From those who live like leeches on the people's lives, We must take back our land again, America!...Langston Hughes

        by KenBee on Tue Feb 14, 2012 at 12:51:35 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

        •  it would be my dream if I were a historian (2+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          Eric Nelson, KenBee

          or researcher to compare landgrabs in Africa in the past and the today with landgrabs in the Americas during the past til today.

          I am just a housewife, who does stupid work for a living, and gets dumbed down just surviving. Can't even comment to anything. Just trying to absorb the little bit I catch here. But I know it's one of the most important issues along with the destruction of the environment and the land to be aware of and fight against.

          Can't tell you how appreciative I am to read here and at least get a feeling I could understand a tiny itsy bit of history, if I were to study all the links provided, which I definitely will do one day in earnest.

          It's such an important issue to study including the differences in ways peoples and corporations (ah forgot they are people ...) have stolen and still steal land from indigineous peoples all over the Africa and the Americas, for the sake exploitation, all the way along with destruction the cultures, livelihoods and civil rights of the peoples.

          An awful saga and a never ending story.

  •  Our version of (9+ / 0-)
    "A land without a people for a people without a land"
    Except, in many ways, worse. As America's original sins go, this is the other big one. At least we've made some progress with that one. Native Americans and their problems are still largely invisible to most Americans.

    "Liberty without virtue would be no blessing to us" - Benjamin Rush, 1777

    by kovie on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 08:32:45 PM PST

  •  updated the norcal Path2Health comments I made (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:

    a while back, here in recent OND.

    This is looking better and better to me, I hope it works, it seems more user friendly and more likely to help.

    Anybody run into it, try to remember to let me know?

    From those who live like leeches on the people's lives, We must take back our land again, America!...Langston Hughes

    by KenBee on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 08:44:37 PM PST

  •  will consolidation of the land titles (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Eric Nelson, navajo, KenBee

    under tribal ownership resolve some of the legal development problems.  It has been my understanding that even bringing utilities & water to some homes on some reservations have all kinds of weird legal hurtles besides the money issues.

    fact does not require fiction for balance (proudly a DFH)

    by mollyd on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 09:20:37 PM PST

  •  i never knew anything about this (6+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Eric Nelson, navajo, itsbenj, KenBee, mollyd, mimi

    i am ashamed to admit i never heard of Dawes until this diary.

    I learn so much essential history at Daily Kos.

    *"Politics is like driving. To go backward put it in R. To go forward put it in D."*
    When I look at the economy, I think Obama can't win; when I look at the Republicons I think he can't lose. And the economy is getting better. h/t Paul Begala

    by TrueBlueMajority on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 09:43:56 PM PST

    •  I will just guess that in school you DID... (7+ / 0-)

      ...hear about Custer and Pocahontas. That's what we're up against. Younger people have gotten a better education on the subject; at least textbooks are better than they were. When I did a survey of approved history texts in California public schools in 1987 for a newspaper essay I was writing, you could still find "savage" and "hostiles" used as descriptions of Indians in some of them without the quotation marks. They were full of crap on other counts, too. The book Lies My Teacher Told me is a good primer antidote to that crap.

      Don't tell me what you believe, show me what you do and I will tell you what you believe.

      by Meteor Blades on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 10:29:53 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  a question from the NY regents test (0+ / 0-)

        (5) The passage of the Dawes Act in 1887 was primarily an attempt by the United States government to

        a. limit the power of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
         b. return eastern land to Native American Indian tribes
        c. encourage Native American Indians to give up their traditional cultures
        d. hire Native American Indians as military scouts

        fact does not require fiction for balance (proudly a DFH)

        by mollyd on Tue Feb 14, 2012 at 05:54:47 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

        •  I can't get a feeling in how far (0+ / 0-)

          the Buerau of Indian Affairs was protecting the rights of the American Indians and when they did the opposite.

          This must be a painful patchwork of details to investigate and difficult to research, I assume.  I just hate it if the wrong people start to blame the victims and point to the corrupted ones to make their arguments.

  •  one unnoticed thing about the allotment act (7+ / 0-)

    is just how many of the tribes fought so hard to stop it. Our people knew full well what would happen if we were divided up and could become individual pray to the greedy hordes that surrounded us. Tribe after Tribe did anything they could to delay and stop the act from being implemented. Many Chiefs and other leaders were jailed and held in prison for no reason except for speaking up against allotment. In my wifes Otoe nation all the Chiefs were put in prison and held until they agreed to let allotment haappen. The Commanche and Kiowa took it all the way to the Supreme Court, they lost but it did buy them some valuable time to prepare.

    Another thing that doesn't get much notice is how the Indian Agents were in cahoots with the ranchers and bankers. Of course the Agent was supposed to protect our people as our legal 'trustee'. On our reservation the grocery store which was run by the rancher would give a family credit for food and let them run up a big bill. Then the store would demand payment and when it was not forthcoming the Agent would allow them to foreclose on a portion of their lands. More commonly it was a bank which would give them a loan to pay their bills and then the Agent would allow the bank to take the land.

    It was all illegal since trust land could not by law be sold without Presidential approval but legality be damned it happened all over Oklahoma. Some of OKlahomas biggest fortunes were accumulated that way including the famous Kerr Ranch of well known Senator Robert Kerr was built that way as was the '101 Ranch' of "Wild West Show" fame which was carved out of my peoples small reservation.

    America could have chosen to be the worlds doctor, or grocer. We choose instead to be her policeman. pity

    by cacamp on Mon Feb 13, 2012 at 09:47:34 PM PST

    •  wow ... that all needs to be told ... however (0+ / 0-)

      painful it is.

      Legality must not be damned if it concerns stealing of land.

      If injustice becomes law (or just laws to be damned), rebellion is duty. Have no idea who said that, but I think it's right.

  •  thanks for this (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:

    I had shamefully forgotten the name of this Act. I will make sure to do so never again.

  •  I didn't know Elouise Cobell was dead. (0+ / 0-)

    I felt so… I can't even describe how I felt when I found out about what she was doing in court to force a reckoning.

    A solid human being, that one.

    Poverty = politics.

    by Renee on Tue Feb 14, 2012 at 03:08:56 AM PST

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