Skip to main content

For any who may be reading this series for the first time: this is a thought experiment where I try to see what would happen if the size of the House of Representatives were doubled to 870 members from 435. And yes, I know Republicans have the trifecta in Maine, and there's split control in New Hampshire. This entire series is theoretical to begin with, gimme a break.

Not much to say, this is Doubling the House for New England. I tried to not split any towns or cities (or in the case of Massachusetts, any towns or cities except Boston), since New England is much more divided on the basis of town than counties. Without going over my maps with a fine-toothed comb, I think I succeeded, except for Connecticut (damn them...).

Links to the adopted plans in Connecticut, Massachusetts and Maine. New Hampshire has not yet begun their redistricting process, but so few changes need to be made that it's probably going to look very close to the current map. Rhode Island's map has only recently passed the state legislature and awaits the Governor's signature. The Connecticut plan is not yet final.

Please enjoy!

Previous Doubling Diaries: NE, MO, NC, MI, FL, SC, WI, LA, MS, UT, NV, OK, AK, WY, IN, NJ, VA, OH, HI, ND, SD, NM, VT, DE and ID

Since there are 5 states in this diary (Vermont, the 6th New England state, has already been covered), we'll go in alphabetical order.

Connecticut


Connecticut gets 10 districts

1
VAP: 51 White, 22.6 Black, 19.7 Hispanic
73.8 Obama

John Larson (D-East Hartford), the Minority Caucus Chair of the House, lives here. Hartford and surrounding. Already majority-minority by total population, this could potentially elect a minority sometime in the next decade, assuming Larson retires. Safe D

2
VAP: 84.2 W, 6.5 H
59.7 Obama

Joe Courtney (D-Vernon) lives here. Manachester, Mansfield, and Enfield. Safe D

3
VAP: 84.3 W, 5.9 H
59.2 Obama

Open. Norwich, New London, Marlborough. Safe D

4
VAP: 91.2 W
53.8 Obama

Open. Torrington, Bristol, Farmington. The least Democratic district in the state, Any Republicans that are currently running for CT-05 would jump ship here. Barely a D+1. Swing

5
VAP: 80 W, 5 B, 10.1 H
62.1 Obama

Open. Middletown and Hartford suburbs of Glastonbury and Wethersfield. Safe D

6
VAP: 65.7 W, 15.1 B, 13.7 H
66.9 Obama

Rosa DeLauro (D-New Haven), who is a fucking hipster, lives here. New Haven and environs. Safe D

7
VAP: 81.8 W, 6.1 B, 7.9 H
56.5 Obama

Open; Chris Murphy (D-Cheshire) is running for Senate. Southington, Meriden, Naugatuck and North Haven. Both major Democrats who are running to replace Murphy, House Speaker Chris Donovan (Meriden) and former State Rep. Elizabeth Esty (Cheshire) live here. Likely D

8
VAP: 72.2 W, 7.1 B, 14.9 H
54.4 Obama

Open. Waterbury and Danbury. Lean D

9
VAP: 61.7 W, 15 B, 17.7 H
61.9 Obama

Open. Bridgeport and Milford. Safe D

10
VAP: 69.1 W, 8.2 B, 15.8 H, 5.8 Asian
60 Obama

Jim Himes (D-Greenwich) lives here. Stamford, Westport and Norwalk. Safe D
.
.
.
Connecticut goes from a 5-0 delegation to a 9-0-1 map.

Massachusetts


Massachusetts gets 18 districts.

The Dem/Rep average for Massachusetts is the 2010 U.S. Senate special election and the 2010 gubernatorial election. Since the Republican won the former and the Democrat won the latter only with a plurality, the average is absurdly skewed on the red side. So for comparison, I also calculated the 2008 Presidential numbers by hand, but only for the districts where the average was unrepresentative (in my view). Obama's numbers can be construed as an overperformance, however. So if you take the numbers together you get a decent idea of how to judge these districts.

Boston

1
VAP: 38.9 W, 32.3 B, 15.9 H, 8.4 A
77 Dem

Stephen Lynch (D-Boston) lives here (I think); majority minority, plurality white. The majority of the city of Boston. Lynch probably moves to the 5th, 6th or 14th. Perfect district for State Senator Sonia Chang-Diaz. Safe D

2
VAP: 70.6 W, 5.8 B, 7.3 H, 13.4 A
74.7 Dem

Open. Cambridge, Brookline and part of Boston. Safe D

3
VAP: 64.7 W, 6.8 B, 18.1 H, 7.2 A
53.4 Dem, 62.9 Obama

Ed Markey (D-Malden) lives here. Chelsea, Everett, Revere, Medford, Malden and Melrose, plus a few precincts of Boston. The Obama percentage does not include the part of Boston in the district. Safe D

4
VAP: 78.1 W, 6 B, 10 A
65.9 Dem

Mike Capuano (D-Somerville) lives here. Somerville, Watertown, Waltham and Newton. Capuano would probably rather run in the 2nd instead, there's not much crossover between this district and his current one. If Barney Frank's primary reason for retiring was redistricting like he said, he could run here, his home of Newton is a large part of the district. Safe D

5
VAP: 80 W, 6.2 B, 9.1 A
45.2 Dem, 54.4 Obama

Bill Keating (D-Quincy) lives here, although he is moving to his summer home in Bourne (12th) to run in the new MA-09. He could reverse his decision to move, but I doubt it, the 12th is much bluer. This would be a decent district for conservaDem Stephen Lynch
to run in. Safe D with Lynch

6
VAP: 87 W, 5.5 A
46.7 Dem, 57.9 Obama

Open. Natick and Norwood. Likely D

7
VAP: 78.5 W, 7.6 H, 9.4 A
41.4 Dem, 54.4 Obama

Niki Tsongas (D-Lowell) lives here. Lowell, Tyngsborough and Menthuen. Tsongas has not been the strongest incumbent, so this could be shaky for a cycle or two. Lean D

8
VAP: 78.9 W, 16.8 H
46.1 Dem, 56.8 Obama

Open. Ipswich, Gloucester and Lawrence. Likely D

9
VAP: 81.5 W, 9.9 H
45.7 Dem, 57 Obama

John Tierney (D-Salem) lives here. Salem, Peabody and Lynn. Likely D

10
VAP: 85.9 W, 6.5 A
43.8 Dem, 56.9 Obama

Open. Woburn, Concord, Marlborough and Shrewsbury. Lean D

11
VAP: 77.5 W, 5.7 B, 10.9 H
45.7 Dem, 51.4 Obama

Jim McGovern (D-Wocester) lives here. Worcester and Leominster. Likely D with McGovern, due to incumbency and his control of the local machine, but McGovern may be a bit to the left of this district, and it would definitely be quite a fight should he retire.

12
VAP: 92.3 W
44.6 Dem, 62.3 Obama

Cape Cod. As I said earlier, Bill Keating, who is already moving to this district to run in MA-09, will run here. Safe D

13
VAP: 87.5 W, 5.3 H
53.1 Dem, 58.2 Obama

Open. Fall River, New Bedford, etc. Safe D

14
VAP: 81.2 W, 8.7 B
41 Dem, 50.9 Obama

Open. Taunton, Brockton and Pembroke. This is the district most likely to fall into Republican hands. But the presence of Brockton, which is almost 1/3 of the district, keeps it from being a sure thing. Swing

15
VAP: 85.2 W
41 Dem, 53.9 Obama

Open. Framingham, North Attleborough and Attleboro. Same Dem/Rep performance, but stronger Obama performance makes this Lean D

16
VAP: 91.2 W, 5 H
42.3 Dem, 55.9 Obama

Open. Sprawling district in the middle of the state, no major population centers. Lean D

17
VAP: 66.9 W, 20.6 H
51.8 Dem, 57.1 Obama

Richard Neal (D-Springfield) lives here. Springfield and surrounding. Safe D

18
VAP: 90 W
64.8 Dem

Open. Western Mass. Solidly blue. Former state Senator Andrea Nuciforo, who is currently running against Rep. Neal in the MA-01 primary, lives here, in Pittsfield. He'd appreciate being handed a seat. Safe D
.
.
.
.
.
.
Massachusetts goes from a 10-0 delegation, to a 9-0 map after losing a district, to a 17-0-1 under Doubling.

Maine


Maine gets 4 districts.

1
VAP: 93.9 W
62.8 Obama

Open. Portland. Safe D

2
VAP: 95.8 W
58.3 Obama

Open. Lewiston, Biddeford. Safe D

3
VAP: 96.8 W
57.4 Obama

Chellie Pingree (D-North Haven) lives here. Waterville, Rockland, Rumford and the capital of Augusta. Safe D

4
VAP: 95.7 W
51.6 Obama

Mike Michaud (D-East Millinocket) lives here. The least blue district in the state, it ironically could make Michaud more safe, since he's anti-choice. State Senate President Kevin Raye (R-Perry) also lives in this district though, and could be more emboldened to challenge him to a rematch of 2002. Raye is pro-choice. Lean D
.
.
.
.
.
Maine goes from 2-0 to 4-0.

New Hampshire


New Hampshire gets 4 districts.

1
VAP: 95 W
46.1 Obama

More than likely open; Frank Guinta (R-Manchester) could live here, there is one ward of Manchester in this district. Hampton, Goffstown, Merrimack. This is a Republican vote sink; basically taking in every one of the Massachusetts ex-pats, the Manchester and Concord suburbs, etc. For the northeast, a 46% Obama district is Safe R. Guinta probably jumps ship from the 2nd, provided he doesn't already live here.

2
VAP: 88.8 W
55.1 Obama

Charlie Bass (R-Peterborough) and Guinta (possibly) live here. Manchester, Nashua and Keene. As I said, Guinta runs in the 1st. This actually loses a point of Obama performance from the current NH-02 for Bass, so he might actually like this district. But he'd be susceptible to the wild wings of the New Hampshire electorate, as always. Swing

3
VAP: 95.2 W
59.7 Obama

Open. Concord, Claremont, Lebanon, and Berlin. Ann McLane Kuster, who held Charlie Bass to a 1-point margin in 2010, lives in Hopkinton. She would run here and romp, in the safest Dem district in the state. Safe D

4
VAP: 95.2 W
56.6 Obama

Open. Rochester, Portsmouth, Dover and Laconia. Former Rep. Carol Shea-Porter lives in Rochester, and she'd run here, but her aversion to fundraising would be a burden in non-presidential years. If she can't hack it, maybe House Minority Leader Terri Norielli would try to move up. Lean D
.
.
.
.
New Hampshire goes from a 0-2 delegation to a 2-1-1 map.

Rhode Island


Rhode Island gets 3 districts. This is the only state in this diary that does not have political data.

1
VAP: 65.2 W, 7.7 B, 19.4 H

David Cicilline (D-Providence) lives here. Providence, Cranston and North Sciutate. Safe D, Cicilline is no longer vulnerable in a general election, but probably moreso in a primary.

2
VAP: 92.3 W

Jim Langevin (D-East Greenwich) lives here. Warwick, Bristol, Newport and Block Island. Safe D for Langevin, could be shaky when he retires though.

3
VAP: 81.5 W, 8.9 H

Open. Blue East Providence and blue and bluening-even-more Pawtucket combined with the reddest parts of the outstate. Lean D
.
.
.
.
Rhode Island goes from 2-0 to 3-0

Vermont


Even though Vermont has already been covered in a separate diary, just for completism's sake I thought I'd post this.

Both districts are 93+ VAP white, and 65+% Obama. Peter Welch lives in the 2nd, in Hartland. Both are Safe D, with the 1st being open for an Independent/Progressive, à la Bernie Sanders.
.
.
.
Excluding Vermont, these 5 states together are 35-1-3, bringing the House as a whole so far to 194-145-35

EMAIL TO A FRIEND X
Your Email has been sent.
You must add at least one tag to this diary before publishing it.

Add keywords that describe this diary. Separate multiple keywords with commas.
Tagging tips - Search For Tags - Browse For Tags

?

More Tagging tips:

A tag is a way to search for this diary. If someone is searching for "Barack Obama," is this a diary they'd be trying to find?

Use a person's full name, without any title. Senator Obama may become President Obama, and Michelle Obama might run for office.

If your diary covers an election or elected official, use election tags, which are generally the state abbreviation followed by the office. CA-01 is the first district House seat. CA-Sen covers both senate races. NY-GOV covers the New York governor's race.

Tags do not compound: that is, "education reform" is a completely different tag from "education". A tag like "reform" alone is probably not meaningful.

Consider if one or more of these tags fits your diary: Civil Rights, Community, Congress, Culture, Economy, Education, Elections, Energy, Environment, Health Care, International, Labor, Law, Media, Meta, National Security, Science, Transportation, or White House. If your diary is specific to a state, consider adding the state (California, Texas, etc). Keep in mind, though, that there are many wonderful and important diaries that don't fit in any of these tags. Don't worry if yours doesn't.

You can add a private note to this diary when hotlisting it:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary from your hotlist?
Are you sure you want to remove your recommendation? You can only recommend a diary once, so you will not be able to re-recommend it afterwards.
Rescue this diary, and add a note:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary from Rescue?
Choose where to republish this diary. The diary will be added to the queue for that group. Publish it from the queue to make it appear.

You must be a member of a group to use this feature.

Add a quick update to your diary without changing the diary itself:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary?
(The diary will be removed from the site and returned to your drafts for further editing.)
(The diary will be removed.)
Are you sure you want to save these changes to the published diary?

Comment Preferences

  •  Tip Jar (6+ / 0-)

    24, Solid Liberal Democrat (-4.75, -4.51), DKE Gay Caucus Majority Leader, IN-02; Swingnut. Gregg for Governor! Donnelly for Senate! Mullen for Congress!

    by HoosierD42 on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 09:16:16 AM PST

  •  Not that important, but what the heck is (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    HoosierD42

    Weatogue, CT doing up where Canaan should be? Weatogue is part of Simsbury, CT. Where did that map come from?  (I grew up in Simsbury, later lived in Lakeville, next door to Canaan.)

    A society grows great when old men plant trees in whose shade they know they shall never sit. - Greek proverb

    by marleycat on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 09:25:54 AM PST

  •  Comments (4+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    pgm 01, bfen, HoosierD42, bumiputera

    1. RI's map was signed into law last week.

    2. I think John Larson lives in East Hartford

    3. Your CT 4th district would probably go to State Sen. Andrew Roraback, the GOP candidate for CT-05. But he supports gay marriage, so he's at least somewhat moderate.

    4. You may have drawn Sonia Chang-Diaz into the MA 2nd district; not sure where in JP she lives.

    5. Cambridge + West Roxbury is an odd pairing. Cambridge + Somerville is much better COI-wise. Also, why did you stick a small piece of Readville into the 5th district? It seems out of place.

    6. Niki Tsongas would be in huge danger in that district you gave her. Remember that her first election in 2007 was unexpectedly narrow, and you took away Lawrence and all of the liberal MetroWest towns that provided her margin.

    7. Jim Langevin lives in Warwick, not East Greenwich (that was my mistake which has since been corrected on the spreadsheet).

    8. A lot of your ratings are way too optimistic for Ds (at least in MA), but good work overall.

    21, male, RI-01 (voting) IL-01 (college), hopeless Swingnut

    by sapelcovits on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 09:45:40 AM PST

    •  Yeah, the MA 1st CD seems (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      HoosierD42

      pretty perfect for Ayanna Presley.

      20, Dude, Chairman DKE Gay Caucus! (College IN-09) (Raised IL-03, IL-09) Tammy Baldwin and Elizabeth Warren for Senate!

      by ndrwmls10 on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 04:34:29 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

    •  Thanks! (0+ / 0-)

      I thought I had listed Larson's residence as East Hartford, I guess I was wrong. And as for point 5, I was just going for the best population equity that I could while keeping towns and cities whole.

      24, Solid Liberal Democrat (-4.75, -4.51), DKE Gay Caucus Majority Leader, IN-02; Swingnut. Gregg for Governor! Donnelly for Senate! Mullen for Congress!

      by HoosierD42 on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 09:53:23 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  For any New England DKErs (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    WisJohn, HoosierD42

    I'm considering continuing the Canada-style series (110,000 population ridings) in a number of these states, but I have no idea about communities of interest and don't want to get them wrong. Any tips?

    Male, 21, -4.75/-6.92, born and raised TN-05, now WI-02, unapologetic supporter of Obama and Occupy. Tammy Baldwin for Senate and Recall Walker!

    by fearlessfred14 on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 09:50:02 AM PST

    •  Shameless self-promotion (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      HoosierD42

      I did one of those of RI a while back (here), so you could use that as a guide for COI.

      As for MA, I don't know if you're doing a political gerrymander or sticking purely to CoI, but you should keep different regions together - Berkshires, Pioneer Valley, MetroWest, North Shore, South Shore, Cape Cod, islands, strip mall suburbs (around routes 495, 6, and 44), etc......

      21, male, RI-01 (voting) IL-01 (college), hopeless Swingnut

      by sapelcovits on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 09:58:14 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  My maps tend to be pretty much neutral (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        HoosierD42

        or as close as I can make it. While I don't think like a GOP trifecta, I think that for comparative reasons neutral maps are preferable to Dem gerrymanders.

        Male, 21, -4.75/-6.92, born and raised TN-05, now WI-02, unapologetic supporter of Obama and Occupy. Tammy Baldwin for Senate and Recall Walker!

        by fearlessfred14 on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 10:37:34 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

    •  Avoid town splits (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      HoosierD42, bumiputera

      Massachusetts tradition is to minimizing splitting towns as much as possible.  While this is sometimes violated out of necessity and sometimes violated for political reasons, it's still a good maxim for a non-partisan map to follow.

      29, (new) MA-7, Unenrolled

      by Marcus Graly on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 11:23:32 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  Thoughts (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    wwmiv, HoosierD42

    I feel like Andrew Roraback would definitely be favored in that Litchfield Hills seat of NW CT (CT-04). He easily wins reelection to a ~60% Obama State Senate seat and is a New England style Republican (yes, like Chris Shays). His family is also quite wealthy... they've owned the same law firm in Torrington since 1880 or so.

    Also, McGovern is in the top 5 most liberal House members. Sure, he runs the Worcester machine, but someone that liberal in an (at least) R+2 seat just can't be favored. In my opinion that's a toss up at worst for Republicans.

    The South Shore of MA is also trending right and I think Republicans win that 51% Obama Brockton based seat. I bet that State Senator Bob Hedlund of Weymouth could move there and win... and if Lynch doesn't run in that 54% Obama Quincy based seat, I bet that Hedlund could run and make that a toss up. His Senate seat is in there and he's super popular.

    Also, I have a hard time calling your CT-08 anything but a toss up. That's an R+ seat... probably went ~53% in 2004 for GWB, judging by the McCain %s of the current CT-04 and 05 compared to their Obama %s.

    18. R. IL-10. Justin Amash-ite. “Freedom granted only when it is known beforehand that its effects will be beneficial is not freedom.”- F.A. Hayek

    by IllinoyedR on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 11:28:14 AM PST

    •  McGovern may be liberal (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      HoosierD42

      but he actually does pretty well in Worcester's suburbs. He won quite a few that voted strongly for Scott Brown and most of the statewide Republicans.

      21, male, RI-01 (voting) IL-01 (college), hopeless Swingnut

      by sapelcovits on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 11:53:48 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  McGovern (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        HoosierD42

        Hmm... Marty Lamb was a D list candidate. Brown was a great candidate and the statewide ticket's candidates were significantly better candidates than Lamb. With Worcester area native daughter Karyn Polito in the race, I think McGovern very narrowly wins or narrowly loses.

        18. R. IL-10. Justin Amash-ite. “Freedom granted only when it is known beforehand that its effects will be beneficial is not freedom.”- F.A. Hayek

        by IllinoyedR on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 11:56:44 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

        •  Yeah, but it was 2010 (1+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          HoosierD42

          Sean Bielat was a D-list candidate too and he at least managed to win most towns outside of the hardcore D strongholds.

          21, male, RI-01 (voting) IL-01 (college), hopeless Swingnut

          by sapelcovits on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 12:17:29 PM PST

          [ Parent ]

          •  Strongly disagree (1+ / 0-)
            Recommended by:
            HoosierD42

            Bielat had military service, an undergraduate degree from Georgetown, a masters in govt from Harvard, and a Wharton MBA. He was good on the stump and raised decent money. He may not have been a great fit for the seat but he was definitely not a D list challenger. Comparing Lamb to Bielat is just not accurate by any stretch.

            18. R. IL-10. Justin Amash-ite. “Freedom granted only when it is known beforehand that its effects will be beneficial is not freedom.”- F.A. Hayek

            by IllinoyedR on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 12:26:08 PM PST

            [ Parent ]

            •  Going to good schools is impressive (1+ / 0-)
              Recommended by:
              HoosierD42

              in the realm of life, but it doesn't raise you up from Some Dude status. The only thing that distinguished him was that the race got a lot of outside money due to conservative hatred of Barney Frank, but still, remember that MA-04 was much bluer than MA-03.

              21, male, RI-01 (voting) IL-01 (college), hopeless Swingnut

              by sapelcovits on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 12:57:28 PM PST

              [ Parent ]

              •  Fair enough. (1+ / 0-)
                Recommended by:
                HoosierD42

                Our definitions of "some dude" may be quite different. Yours seems to be non-office holder. Mine is someone who either holds no office or a non-important office AND is not super impressive (no successful business experience, no degrees from a ton of good schools, low name recognition). By my perceived version of your definition, Meg Whitman would have been a "some lady" candidate, which I do not think she was.

                18. R. IL-10. Justin Amash-ite. “Freedom granted only when it is known beforehand that its effects will be beneficial is not freedom.”- F.A. Hayek

                by IllinoyedR on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 01:12:29 PM PST

                [ Parent ]

                •  It is indeed your perceived version of (1+ / 0-)
                  Recommended by:
                  HoosierD42

                  my definition and not my definition itself.

                  Sean Bielat does not have anywhere near the money or influence of someone like Meg Whitman or even, say, the Koch Bros.

                  21, male, RI-01 (voting) IL-01 (college), hopeless Swingnut

                  by sapelcovits on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 01:16:35 PM PST

                  [ Parent ]

                  •  Well... (1+ / 0-)
                    Recommended by:
                    HoosierD42

                    I at least think there are tiers of "some dudeness."

                    Bielat is a seriously impressive "some dude."

                    Lamb is... not.

                    There are definitely worse (like the oddballs that parties throw up in R+20 and D+35 type seats), but I think not every some dude was created equal as candidates.

                    18. R. IL-10. Justin Amash-ite. “Freedom granted only when it is known beforehand that its effects will be beneficial is not freedom.”- F.A. Hayek

                    by IllinoyedR on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 01:20:37 PM PST

                    [ Parent ]

              •  You are right (2+ / 0-)
                Recommended by:
                sapelcovits, HoosierD42

                McGovern overperformed considerably in the Worcester suburbs. He won some towns that are swingy or even slightly R-leaning by national standards by double digits against Lamb. This strength was limited to Worcester County, as Lamb won the towns in the southern leg of the district by the margins you'd expect.

                McGovern's performance in greater Worcester is even more impressive when you consider that Olver and Neal both lost a number of towns similar to the ones McGovern carried.

                Former SSP Minority Whip

                by Massr on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 01:20:24 PM PST

                [ Parent ]

  •  Richard Tisei (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    wwmiv, SLDemocrat, HoosierD42

    I also think that that MA-09 would be very competitive with Richard Tisei running against John Tierney. That area you included is his base and was his Senate seat for 20 years. He's very popular around there. It would lean D but I could see Tisei winning.

    18. R. IL-10. Justin Amash-ite. “Freedom granted only when it is known beforehand that its effects will be beneficial is not freedom.”- F.A. Hayek

    by IllinoyedR on Wed Feb 15, 2012 at 11:30:06 AM PST

  •  Minor comment -- in western Mass. (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    sapelcovits, SLDemocrat, HoosierD42

    Andrea Nuciforo is a guy.

Subscribe or Donate to support Daily Kos.

Click here for the mobile view of the site