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This is a followup to last week's post, Notorious, looking again at German-Americans during World War I. The lesson in this post is that you can learn a lot from passport applications.

Let's start with a woman called Anna. She was born in Dresden, Germany in 1851. The earliest record I've found her mentioned in is the 1880 U.S. Census, at which time she is living in Philadelphia with her husband, Mr. John Smith, and one child, a 7-year-old daughter named Mary. Mr. Smith's Quaker ancestors came to Pennsylvania early, in the 1600s. In 1880, he is part of an educated clan, in the specialized, respectable business of publishing law books.

Anna's widowed German mother is also a member of the household. This provides Anna's maiden name, though I've yet to find any other relevant records bearing that name.You may have noticed these people have extraordinarily generic names. This has made searches problematic, because of having to sort through so many "false positive" results. Almost of what I know of her has come from passport applications.

Mr. Smith dies young, at 40, likely long anticipated. His 1889 death certificate shows he died of consumption (aka tuberculosis) at a sanitarium in New York State. Shortly thereafter, Anna booked passage back to Germany with her only child, Mary, now a teen. (I assume Anna's mother went, too, if she was still alive, though I've yet to find records that indicate what happened to her.) Anna applies to renew her American passport in 1890, presumably to keep current.

Daughter Mary shows up in the records again a few years later, married to a native born U.S. citizen, from New Jersey, whose immigrant parents were from Germany & Scotland. They marry in Dresden in 1894, and their first child is born in New Jersey a year and a half later.  

They move to England, where two more children are born. They are counted in Cornwall for the 1901 English Census. Mary's husband dies at 45 in 1909 and is buried in Cornwall.  He leaves her with three children, counted in the 1911 England Census.

Mary dies in 1953 in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and is buried in Philadelphia. (Except that she remarried, and spent an unknown amount of time in France including 1919, her story for this 40+ years remains a blank.)

Mary's mother, Anna, shown in the picture to the left, remains in Germany.  The picture was submitted with a 1915 passport application.

Anna visits the States. One hopes she spent some time with her grandchildren in England. (Again, the very common names make searches challenging.) Anna has property back in Pennsylvania she inherited from her husband, including a house. The legal publishing company is still in business.

She does not remarry. Life goes on.

And then Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungary Empire's crown, is assassinated in Sarajevo at the end of June 1914.


By early August, the major countries of Europe have chosen up sides and declared war on each other. Germany invades Belgium on August 4th. August 10, Anna Smith visits the American Consulate in Dresden to apply for a passport, which is issued. This has to be a response to world events.

Here's a timeline of widow Anna Smith's passport applications, including supporting documentation. This list is certainly incomplete, but still sketches a narrative:

  • Oct 1890, Berlin: Widow Smith's passport application is submitted on a Native form, not one for naturalized U.S. citizens, despite being born German. That status claim is based upon her deceased husband having been a native-born U.S. citizen. Permanent residence: Philadelphia. Application is for herself and 17-year-old daughter, Mary.
Note: During this period passport application forms included the following instruction: A woman's application must state whether she is married or not, and a married woman must state whether her husband is a native citizen.
  • Aug 1914, Dresden. Emergency Passport Application.  Generally, the purpose of applying for a passport is travel. On this application, Anna describes her purpose as "protection." A copy of her marriage certificate is presented as documentation for her claim as a "native" U.S. citizen.
  • Jan 1915, Dresden. Type: Native; Permanent Residence: Philadelphia; Intend to Return within 2 years. Purpose of passport is for residence in Germany.
  • Oct 1915, Dresden. Residing in Germany. Type: Native. Permanent Residence: Philadelphia
At this time, America is still neutral in the Great War. Attached to this passport application is a letter to the Secretary of State signed by the American Consulate General at Dresden.  
I have the honor to transmit, with photographs attached, the passport application of Mrs. Smith, a native of Dresden, Saxony, but an American citizen by marriage, to whom the Department issued a passport February 1915.  Mrs. Smith has filed an affidavit in the Office that she will remain in Germany until the close of the war when she intends to return to Philadelphia where her property is located, her home being in Germantown.

Your obedient servant ---

  • Oct 1919, The Hague. The War is over. Anna shows up at the American Embassy in The Hague to apply for another passport. She is traveling on an emergency passport from Spain, issued in Berlin. She is ready to travel to the U.S. permanently, only waiting for a U.S. passport for her departure.

This application required a supplemental form, Affadavit to Explain Foreign Residence and Overcome Presumption of Expatriation. At this point, Anna had spent as much time back in Germany as she'd spent in her 20 years as a German immigrant in Philadelphia. She does not present her American marriage certificate to support her claim to American citizenship, as she had in 1915. Less than a third of her life has been lived in the U.S. Here's what she had to say for herself.

I ceased to reside in the United States on or about November 1889, that I have since resided at Dresden, Germany; and I am now temporarily residing in Holland, my reason for such residence [away from the U.S.] being the following:

I went to Germany for economical reasons my husband having died and I believing it cheaper to live in there than in America. She gives references: a bank, the publishing company, and a couple of individuals [only one of them she actually knows their location, one of her son-in-law's German-American relations, her remarried daughter being only "somewhere in France."]

I have visited America ten times since leaving. I intend to return to the United States immediately.

That trip out of Germany in 1919 must have been something. The war had left defeated Germany, and all the rest of Europe, in a shambles. The 1918 influenza epidemic killed even more people than the War had. Anna was in her late 60s.

The next page, Opinion of the Officer Taking Affadavit, is blank. No opinion was recorded. But it must have worked. The next application is made from Philadelphia, 1924, to extend her then current passport.

I do not know when or where she died. I have located her husband's grave in Philadelphia, and she is not buried there with him. Almost everything I've been able to find out about her was found in her passport applications.


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Comment Preferences

  •  We had severe weather last night (18+ / 0-)

    The power was out for quite awhile. 10,000 people locally are entirely without power this morning. Ours is now barely working, in a brownout situation.  The TV won't work.  We might still be in danger of losing the contents of the freezer.  Poor Hobbs: He can't make coffee!!  We can't cook anything either.  The lightbulbs are quite dim.  (Those CFLs are especially displeased when short on voltage!)  The wireless modem's working off the UPS at present, which could run out of juice at any time.   This laptop computer might be charging, or might not.

    I've got the diary done, and scheduled. I might have to go out to a cafe later, to join in the comments. I'll do what I can.  

    (I'd mentioned something about a spy for this week, but this felt like a complete diary as-is, so that part of the story is on hold till some other time.)

    Only the little people pay taxes - Leona Helmsley

    by Land of Enchantment on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 06:15:45 AM PDT

  •  Great post. (7+ / 0-)

    Every kind of "dry" data has its juices to yield up, if we just squeeze effectively. Even though there are still big blanks in Anna's story, the image of a real human being comes through loud and clear! :-)

    There are, in every age, new errors to be rectified, and new prejudices to be opposed. ~Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)

    by slksfca on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 09:31:44 AM PDT

  •  Nice detective story ... the logic and (6+ / 0-)

    provable facts are a great framework for puzzling out the other details, with the added facts of world history fleshing out some of the missing details.

    Just need to remark on that "passport photo" -- sure beats my deer-in-the-headlights look! I guess the modern standard rules as to size, what angle the face had to be, etc. would have early photographers shaking their head. I love how even though Anna is in profile, the other side of her face is reflected in that mirror!

    On another note, common names ... yowza that can be a nightmare, I don't know how many arguments I've gotten into with my cousins over the right "Day" and the wrong "Day" ... some of my genealogically challenged relatives will insist that a guy whose records show him to be 11 years younger, living three counties away, born in a different state and married to a different woman, HAS to be our ancestor because of the name. *bangs head against the wall*

    And on Dad's side, my grandfather's sister, with our gloriously unique-even-in-the-old-country surname, married a guy in Germany named Jan Smit.  aaarrrggghhh

    "If you are sure you understand everything that is going on around you, you are hopelessly confused." Walter Mondale

    by klompendanser on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 09:59:45 AM PDT

    •  Even working with relatively unique names (6+ / 0-)

      ... like last week's Bergdolls can require care.  Two cousins were given the same name, in the same town, born in the same year but several months apart.  So every record has to be carefully examined because of the ever-present hazard of assigning them to the wrong one.

      Only the little people pay taxes - Leona Helmsley

      by Land of Enchantment on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 10:08:29 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  That is important to remember. (6+ / 0-)

        I have lucked out on my unique surname ... and I do mean luck ... in the Netherlands, consistent surnames were not the norm until the Napoleonic invasion. But our family adopted ours as a guildname back around 1650--not only that, but the family was originally from Germany, and the spelling of the rather common Dutch word was rendered phonetically according to German spelling rules. To top that off, they remained in the same house continuously from 1650 to about 1830.

        The difficulties arise with the naming conventions, ie children named first for grandparents, so patronyms used as middle names were absolutely critical...I got a few generations off into a line of cousins a couple of times until I realized my mistake. This makes it difficult to trace non-direct female lines--women kept their own names after marriage, but I find that they didn't necessarily keep the guild name--just their patronym.

        I don't have nearly as much luck with my paternal grandmother's line. :(

        "If you are sure you understand everything that is going on around you, you are hopelessly confused." Walter Mondale

        by klompendanser on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 10:34:01 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  Patronym (5+ / 0-)

          That's a new word for me.  I had to look it up.  So - all those O's and Macs and Fitzes have a descriptor.  Something I find helpful as supporting clues is when ancestral names turn up as middle names.  Helps confirm that one hasn't gotten off the track.

          Only the little people pay taxes - Leona Helmsley

          by Land of Enchantment on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 10:46:30 AM PDT

          [ Parent ]

          •  This: (5+ / 0-)
            ...ancestral names turn up as middle names.
   the reason for my mom's family's tradition of giving boys their mother's maiden name as a middle name (as mine is). Sure helps in tracing descent. I was sorry when my sisters abandoned the tradition with their own children...

            There are, in every age, new errors to be rectified, and new prejudices to be opposed. ~Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)

            by slksfca on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 10:51:36 AM PDT

            [ Parent ]

            •  my family has a case of "eldest brother died (0+ / 0-)

              tragically early" (my father, Gordon), so there's a strata of cousins with pretty much every male child having "Gordon" as a middle name. Well, except for my brother, who was 10 when he died, and HIS middle name is our mother's maiden name! My son is the only next generation middle-Gordon I know of, but my one aunt has about 9 great-grandchildren and there may be some more Gordon's there that I don't know about, 8-)

              "real" work : a job where you wash your hands BEFORE you use the bathroom...

              by chimene on Sat Aug 18, 2012 at 02:00:18 AM PDT

              [ Parent ]

          •  It is also helpful when reading War and Peace (6+ / 0-)

            and Anna Karenina.

            Seriously, it really is useful. In the Netherlands, it was the father's first name with an "S" at the end. I have an ancestor whose first name was Derk (named for maternal grandfather), and middle name was "Dirks" (patronym) plus our surname--so even common spelling variations -- Derk/Dirk -- can clue you into whether you're on the right track .

            My favorite was a many greats grandmother with the name of Egbertje Egberts -- I was so glad to be able to claim such a name for my tree.

            "If you are sure you understand everything that is going on around you, you are hopelessly confused." Walter Mondale

            by klompendanser on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 10:56:16 AM PDT

            [ Parent ]

    •  About the picture. (6+ / 0-) has a lot of digitized passport applications on file.  For some of the period covered (maybe 10 out of 30 years?), passport applications included pictures.  Only one of Anna's many passport applications had a picture attached.  But that one does breathe life into her memory.  That's how it is sometimes.  It happens often enough that it's always worth checking.

      Occasionally, there'll be a picture associated with sports or obituary or engagement in their newspaper files, too.  So it's worth a look!

      Only the little people pay taxes - Leona Helmsley

      by Land of Enchantment on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 10:24:53 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Naturalization records too... (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        Land of Enchantment

        My grandparents became citizens in 1911--it only has a physical description of grandpa, but listed all the family names. My oldest uncles were born in the Netherlands--at some point in the 1950s one of them was issued his own naturalization certificate, basically confirming that he was granted citizenship with his parents in 1911--and that included a (then) recent photo. Good reminder that even if you think citizenship happened in someone's childhood, there might be some cool confirmation paperwork available.

        "If you are sure you understand everything that is going on around you, you are hopelessly confused." Walter Mondale

        by klompendanser on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 12:56:17 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

    •  Jan Smit. HA! (3+ / 0-)

      Uh, I mean ... oh, how frustrating (yeah, been there).

      Yes, many of the extended families I've researched in Germany keep recycling the same names over and over:  Maria Elisabeth, Anna Maria, Maria Margaretha, Johann Gerardus, Herman Henrich, and so on.  The bigger the families, the more descendents, the more confusing.  That's when I've had to rely heavily on the marriage and birth witnesses to put families together.

      Of course, that means you have to have access to the church records, which can be very difficult in some of the Dioceses in Germany, many of which refuse to release the church book microfilms for general distribution because of the Mormons practices.  I think they're fighting a losing battle with that though.  Sooner or later, all the information they're trying to protect (which is already accessable in certain research centers in Germany), is going to come out, anyway, due to the world-wide web.

      Can't fight progress (except if you're a republican, of course).

      •  The exact same names (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        klompendanser, edwardssl

        ... in different orders, too.  And then you get your Carl/Charles and Johann/John morphs, too.  And known by different ones of those names at different times in their lifetimes.

        I find it helpful when I can get my hands on a will.  It was greatly helpful with the Bergdolls when I found the founder of the brewery's will on the website of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania (along with a lot of other family papers, too.)  

        My grandfather's work turned up some early colonial wills which has helped resolve some thorny questions where records are scarce.  I've typed up what he transcribed, and have posted much of it on  I get thank you notes from people occasionally, that the material has helped them.  I like it when that happens!

        Only the little people pay taxes - Leona Helmsley

        by Land of Enchantment on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 12:44:00 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

  •  Thanks for the fascinating read, LOE. (5+ / 0-)

    I always feel a touch of envy when I see some of the pictures people have. I have some but not that many. Hoping that will soon change....

    I've been stumbling around quite a bit on Ancestry the last week or so and came upon what looks to be a valid link to what appears to be a well-documented family in my tree. The link comes through my maternal grandfather whose family groups made it to the Virginia frontier in what later became West Virginia and helped steal it from the First Americans there... the Ohio Territory.

    If I can prove this up (and I really don't know that I want to because it would make me "cousins" with the likes of Babs Bush who, by the way, I've always blamed for my Graves Disease) it takes me to my 9th G-Grandfather, one Richard Lippincott of Devonshire EN, Boston MA, Newport RI and Shrewsbury NJ. He first came to Dorchester MA in 1639 and by 1651 was excommunicated by the Puritans, went back to England, joined up with the Quakers, got arrested and imprisoned there but was released upon the intervention of George Fox's (Quaker leader) wife, returned to this continent and settled for a time in RI before being one of the earliest English settlers of Shrewsbury NJ. Lots of history in there!!

    If the links prove out then I am descended from Richard's first son, Remembrance; Babs Bush from son Freedom and Tricky Dick Nixon, no less, from his son Restore. (Thank god for small favors...)

    Next up, a 5th G-Grandfather, Richard Cheney. I think I'll just go shoot myself now.

    Have a great week of research, everybody.

    Inspiration is hard to come by. You have to take it where you find it. --- Bob Dylan.

    by figbash on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 12:28:47 PM PDT

    •  The picture I posted here (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      figbash, klompendanser, edwardssl, jnhobbs

      I found it on, submitted with a passport application.  I have a whole bunch of pictures that came up from searches there.  Many from passports, and some from the newspaper archive.  Every so often, someone's prominent enough to turn up with a wiki page, too, particularly with the early settlers.

      I'll continue to work on things related to the lady in Paris, ahead of the visit there. There was more I'd imagined into this diary, but it would have been too much of an epic. Perhaps some other time? One of Anna's grandchildren born in Cornwall ended up being a spy, which is kinda cool, though it only clicked into place when I found his passport picture, at age 19.  Maybe not a full blown spy, but working with the OSS and French Underground during WWII, employee of the American Embassy over the decades.  It's fun to imagine a more extensive portfolio as a spy, but such things aren't ever known for sure.

      Only the little people pay taxes - Leona Helmsley

      by Land of Enchantment on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 12:39:30 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  I have photographs of my maternal great-grands (4+ / 0-)

        who immigrated from Scotland in 1884. Every single one of my other lines were here by at least the late 1600s, so passport research isn't in my particular deck of cards.

        I should look into where the Hamiltons arrived, though. I know they went directly to Iowa to join kin who'd already made the journey.

        Inspiration is hard to come by. You have to take it where you find it. --- Bob Dylan.

        by figbash on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 12:56:55 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  Two of my grandparents (4+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          klompendanser, figbash, edwardssl, jnhobbs

          ... were the children or grandchildren of immigrants who came in the 1850s.  The rest of them, like yours, were here since in colonial times.  (I could qualify for the DAR many times over if I wanted to go that way.)

          But some of them traveled and got passports to do so.  One branch had missionaries, for example.  One of my grandfather's sisters died of "swamp fever" somewhere in the "Melsetta district" of Rhodesia, for example, in 1908.  Another went to Hawaii before it was annexed by the U.S.  (Their father was a preacher, and education and missionary activity was not uncommon amongst them.)

          Only the little people pay taxes - Leona Helmsley

          by Land of Enchantment on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 01:45:07 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

  •  I love that photo. Very unique, (3+ / 0-)

    especially as a passport photo.  Anna sounds like she lived a very interesting life, but it must have been a very uncertain existence.  I'm sure there were many who wondered where her loyalties lay.

    I'd mentioned before about my g-g-grandfather, William Tanking, who had arrived in the States in 1856 at the age of 16 (a minor), but didn't find out until WW I that he wasn't a citizen, as his father never applied for citizenship before he died.  William had always assumed his father became a citizen, and so as a minor, William would have automatically become one too.  William was even regularly showing up on the voter's registration rolls.  So during WW I when it was discovered that William wasn't a citizen but hadn't applied as an enemy alien, he ended up getting investigated by the Feds.

    Poor William.  He was in his 70s when that happened, and must have been scared to death when the government men showed up at his door.  It wasn't until 1919 when William finally became a citizen.

    Great diary!  I certainly can relate to the German experience :-)

    •  It's never easy to be a widow (4+ / 0-)

      ... with small children.  I imagine Anna's daughter grew up feeling a bit alienated, too.  An only child, getting dragged off to Germany at 16, on the heels of losing a long-sickly father couldn't have left her feeling she belonged anywhere.  I'm wanting to look into her father's family more: Did they, as early settlers, not approve of the marriage to an immigrant? Was the widow shunned? Was the daughter not welcome in their midst? What was it like for her in Dresden?

      Another branch of that family has another situation of an isolated child.  The offspring of some early English settlers in CT headed west in the early 1800s, presumably in search of land which was getting a little tight around the coast.  

      At that time, "west" meant western Pennsylvania for this family.  Life was frontier settler subsistence, clearing plots of forest and starting farms.  Part of a wave of settlement after the brutal clashes with the local Indians were done, and they'd been removed west of the Mississippi.  One of the sons married, and his wife died young with only a single child who survived her, a son.  (I've only seen her first name on one Census, and her maiden name on her son's NH death certificate.)

      The father (patriarch) remarried, and that son doesn't seem to participate in the family thereafter.  He's missing from the Census as a teen, for example.  I've yet to find him - I'm looking for cousins or grandparents where he made his home, or even a work camp or lodging house.  Nothing yet!

      Thing is, the place they settled was called Oil Creek (later changed to Hydetown, after that family), and there were seeping oil springs around.  The Hydes had a sawmill for awhile on their farm, and that oil came in handy for keeping the machinery lubricated.  Later on, their farm had some highly productive early oil wells.

      A little like the Beverly Hillbillies!

      Rockefeller's the one who really struck it mega-rich off Pennsylvania oil, but the Hydes did well. The aforementioned patriarch made enough money to open a bank.  He moved to NJ, commuting distance from NY, built himself a mansion, and listed his occupation as "capitalist" on one of the Census reports, by then being mainly an investor. A few of his spawn married into prominent robber baron families, but that one early brother/son from the first wife never shows up as an usher at any of the weddings, even while John D. Rockefeller Jr. did one time.

      I saw that lost brother mentioned as a survivor in a couple of obituaries, which confirmed the connection, but other than that he's apparently wiped from memory. (His daughter married the grandson of Anna from this diary, Mary's son born in England; I've been actively learning about that bunch this week.)

      For all the talk these days about "conventional nuclear families", I'm not sure "till death do us part" meant anything more than a short period of time in many cases - then as well as now. Only difference was a lot more deaths and nowhere near so many divorces in earlier times. But just as much emotional upheaval. Orphans, and even children who just lost one parent, get farmed out in various ways. Some maybe just flee.  They are often not welcome in the new family when the parent remarries. (Ain't for nuthin' that fairy tales are full of wicked stepmothers.)

      Only the little people pay taxes - Leona Helmsley

      by Land of Enchantment on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 01:36:52 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  I just came across (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    jnhobbs, Land of Enchantment

    this newspaper item, originally posted in the McHenry (Illinois) Plaindealer, Vol I, No. 2, Page 5, Wednesday, Aug 18th, 1875:

       "The morning train from the North on Tuesday, ran over twocows near Ringwood. We did not learn the owners name. No damage to the Engine but the cows are reported as badly demoralized."

    Heh, I love the way they wrote back then.

    •  I found an obituary (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      jnhobbs, edwardssl

      ... while looking around amongst the robber barons and their hangers on.  This was an article in the New York Times.

      Charles de Rham, long prominent in society in this city and in Europe, died today after a short illiness...  He had never engaged in business or a profession.
      He didn't have a single accomplishment that could be pointed to.  Yet he was wealthy and prominent.  The Gilded Age was somethin' else!!

      Then again, there was a bit in a rural PA paper about the head of the brewery (from last week) making a gift of turnips to someone.  County Fair-quality, six-pound turnips.

      Old newspapers can be a real kick.  Now and again, there's some delightful bit of serendipity, like you quoted that is pure delight.

      Only the little people pay taxes - Leona Helmsley

      by Land of Enchantment on Fri Aug 17, 2012 at 10:37:18 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  Hey LOE, I am (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Land of Enchantment

    sorry for coming to your Open Thread this late. I have been under the weather lately. Not doing much of anything.

    Not wanting to make this comment about me, let me tell you that I finished reading your thread and I am full of envy for the ease in which you go back to 1851 in Germany to write about this lady named Anna.

    LOE, how can you? I mean here I am, trying to uncover my family tree just across states lines back to 1930, and you, with so much ease just float across time and tell such an amazing tale starting with Anna that just kept me, like, Wow!

    Thank you Land of Enchantment for making my day more enjoyable. I think when people say they enjoy reading, they envision people like you. You are fantastic in what you do.

    Oh, did I tell you I envy you?

    Keep up the splendid work you do.

    Old men tell same old stories

    by Ole Texan on Sat Aug 18, 2012 at 06:54:24 AM PDT

    •  How can I? Two reasons (0+ / 0-)

      One, some other family members have been doing genealogy research, too, and have given me tips.  I started with a database of nearly 4000 names.  The kinds of materials those who went before gathered have served as lessons to me about how to do it.

      Two, I joined last winter, and they have a lot of records online I can search their databases for.  This diary couldn't exist without it, because that's where I found the passport applications.

      As to the writing?  I have some facility with it, which is a gift.  When it comes to other things, like dancing, I suck.  That part's just the luck of the draw, I guess.  I had some good teachers along the way, which was lucky because it was largely mean and drunk at home.  That meant the worlds I could escape to by reading mattered a lot to me.  So I paid attention to writing, and learned from it.  

      Thanks for the compliment!!

      Only the little people pay taxes - Leona Helmsley

      by Land of Enchantment on Sat Aug 18, 2012 at 07:25:37 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

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