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This will be to the point.  There is a lot of information at the links provided.  For non-pilots, some basic background information is included first.  I know there are a lot of pilots, former pilots and aviation enthusiasts on this site. The first part of this diary will be old news, so feel free to skip to the last section near the bottom.  Be sure to read the AOPA/EAA petition (in PDF format) on the FAA linked page.

The Federal Aviation Administration issues medical certificates for pilots. There are three levels of certificate.  A Class III medical is good for private pilots.  The requirements for passing a Third Class medical are the least strict, but are nevertheless stringent.

Class I & II medical certificates are for commercial pilots.  That is, anyone who flies and gets paid for it (for hire) must have a Class II or higher medical certificate.  First Class medical certificates are the most rigorous and are required for Air Transport Pilot privileges.  That is, to fly airliners.  A Second Class medical examination has more stringent requirements than a Third Class medical.  Discussion of the First and Second Class FAA medical requirements and examinations are not the subject of this diary, and will not be discussed further.

Several years ago, the FAA created a new class of pilot. They are called Light Sport Pilots, and are not required to have a Third Class medical certificate. A current and valid driver's license will suffice. An LSA certified pilot can fly a special class of light aircraft called Light Sport Aircraft (LSA).  

Follow me below the orange turbulence for a discussion of what is at stake and what you personally can do to help. No barf bags or seat belts required on this flight.

There are two distinct issues.  First is the medical certificate.  There has been some discussion in recent years about discarding the Third Class Medical Certificate.  The FAA has turned that proposal down.  A private pilot holding a Third Class Medical can do almost anything a commercial pilot can do except fly for pay.   Fly at night, on instruments, and use busy airports. By comparison, Light Sport Pilots cannot fly at night or on instruments, and are limited on the types of controlled airspace they may enter.

If a pilot has ever applied for a medical certificate and was turned down for any reason, the FAA forbids that pilot from becoming a Light Sport Pilot. Ever. If a pilot does not renew the medical certificate and lets it lapse, there is no problem allowing that pilot to fly as a Sport Pilot, as long as he or she has a current and valid driver's license, issued in the US.

Light Sport Aircraft are real airplanes, but tend to be small, cramped and underpowered. The FAA has defined LSAs as simple, easily flown aircraft meeting certain limitations on weight, speed, and have only two seats.  This link provides an illustration and definitions.. One thing us older pilots have learned about the LSA airplanes as they are now defined.  It was a hell of a lot easier to get in and out of a Piper Cub when I was twenty-five years old than it is at my present age. Thus, part of this is about an aging population that wants to stay active, can still multitask, but the joints get creaky.

Here comes the problem. Lets say our pilot  (we will call him George) has owned his own Cessna 172 since it was bought new in 1959.  George keeps his plane immaculate and flies it frequently.  Airplanes are not like cars, in that they really don't wear out unless neglected.  George wants to get his third class medical renewed since it will expire soon, but the last time he got it renewed, it was accompanied by a certified letter telling him next renewal he must submit to a complete cardiac workup by a cardiologist, and have numerous other tests.  Now George is not an idiot and he can add.  He does some quick calculations, and figures out his next two year renewal is going to cost him at least six thousand dollars.  Cardiologists don't come cheap and neither do neurologists.  In some cases they may demand a complete psychological and neuropsychologial workup, which can add another two to five thousand dollars to the cost. Rather than be failed on his medical, he just lets it lapse, so he can use light sport pilot privileges if he decids to go that route.

We have already established that George is no idiot, and that his only crime is to be in his seventh decade of life. He is still an excellent pilot and should be able to pass the physical, but the added tests are too burdensome.  He wants to continue to fly and doesn't want to sell his already paid for airplane. The FAA is, in effect, telling him he cannot fly a plane he has flown most of his life, sell it and get another one much smaller, more cramped, and has a new learning curve to face.  Yet, he still has his driver's license. The government is just fine with him climbing into his 3,500 pound automobile, driving 70 miles an hour, passing within four feet of other vehicles going the opposite direction at the same speed, at closing rate of 140 miles an hour.

By comparison, George's Cessna 172 weighs 2,200 pounds, has a maximum cruising speed of about 120 miles an hour and lands at 60.

There are many different kinds of discrimination, but one of the most insidious is ageism. The FAA seems to have a problem with aging pilots, a problem that is increasingly compounded as the baby boomer generation ages.  This diary is not about professional pilots and high performance aircraft.  This is about the guy next door, your postman, a farmer, or maybe yourself.  Sunday flyers who like to go sightseeing with the grandchildren, or take short trips on nice clear days.

The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) and the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) have petitioned the FAA to reconsider the rules as to what constitutes a Light Sport Aircraft.

HERE IS WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP:  

In a nutshell, here is the issue:
The EAA and AOPA have petitioned the FAA to expand the LSA medical exemption to apply to aircraft with:Fixed gear, fixed prop, up to 180HP, up to four seats, day, flight in visual meteorological conditions (VMC) only, not for hire.

This proposal has the full support of aircraft manufacturers. General aviation is hemorrhaging pilots and there are not enough new ones being trained.

This links to a recent news release from the EAA. Some of the comments below the article are worth reading.

This links to the FAA web page where the public can comment on the proposed rule making.

Note:
There is a PDF file from the AOPA and EAA on the FAA comment page containing their petition. It has detailed information about the reasoning behind the proposed change in rules, along with statistics to back it up. I strongly urge readers to look it over before commenting.

I will be in and out, so will not be able to respond to all the comments, but will do the best I can.  Please help get these new, more sensible, regulations passed.  The only way any government agency can be prodded to move on new rules, other than Congress passing new laws, is public pressure.  If you send a comment to the FAA, please read the links first. Please copy and paste your comment to the FAA if you are comfortable doing so.

Originally posted to Otteray Scribe on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 12:22 PM PDT.

Also republished by Kossack Air Force and Aviation & Pilots.

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Comment Preferences

  •  Tip Jar (38+ / 0-)

    The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand. - Sun Tzu

    by Otteray Scribe on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 12:22:54 PM PDT

  •  In New Jersey an M.D. must positively assert (8+ / 0-)

    against driving. No one is required to ask and Mother's doctor was not particularly willing but I made it happen.

    These are hard lines to draw.

    Is this effecting you?

    •  Not me personally. (8+ / 0-)

      However, there are some people who are hardly safe to walk, much less drive. In the case of LSA certification, the FAA requires a statement from the pilot saying, in effect, there is no medical or mental condition that would impair his or her ability to exercise the privilege.  

      Of course, when you get your driver's license renewed, you do have to take a vision test, so the FAA has that part of the physical covered indirectly.  

      The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand. - Sun Tzu

      by Otteray Scribe on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 12:51:52 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  I may have missed your basic point. (4+ / 0-)

        You are arguing in favor of older pilots and against new LSA pilots?

        •  Not at all. (9+ / 0-)

          The point is that many pilots of all ages are fully qualified to fly, only want to fly around the patch, but want to fly something bigger than a Piper Cub or that class of airplane.  For instance, if a jump seat is put in the baggage area of a two place LSA airplane for a child, it can never be used as an LSA again. A lot of pilots, and pilot advocacy groups, think he third class medical is a waste of time and money.  

          As for aging, this is an issue that affects increasingly larger numbers of pilots as they grow older. Many of the tests demanded are a waste of time and money. A lot of money. Now that the baby boomers are now reaching retirement age, the problem of older pilots having to fight to keep a current third class medical is killing general aviation.  

          The paperwork has gotten so out of hand, that it is becoming increasingly difficult to find a physician who is an Aviation Medical Examiner (AME). My son was an AME and quit doing flight physicals. It is not just the flight physical itself, it is the fact some pilots have to drive halfway across their state to find an AME.

          The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand. - Sun Tzu

          by Otteray Scribe on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 01:11:07 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

  •  Way back in the 1970s (8+ / 0-)

    when I was living in Lost Wages, Nevada, I attempted to get my license and got shot down by the FAA because I'm a Type 1 diabetic. So I know how getting the medical certificate can be problematic.

    In my case, the flying school assured me that I'd be able to get a waver, but of course they were either totally uninformed or just lying in order to separate me from my money. They told me I didn't need to get the medical until I was ready to solo so I put it off thinking I would be able to get a waver.

    Well, when I was ready to solo, I went to see this FAA approved doctor and a few weeks later I got the letter denying me the Class III and I was so disappointed because I knew that was the end of my flying days.

    Then in the early 1980s I was living near Sky Sailing in Fremont, California and stopped in to look around and learned that I didn't need a license to fly a sail plane. So I was back in the air again and finally managed to solo as a glider pilot.

    It wasn't quite what I originally had in mind, but it was better than nothing.

    Anyway, while it's been many years now since I've been flying, I do think the rule changes make sense and will see what I can do to help.

    The only trouble with retirement is...I never get a day off!

    by Mr Robert on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 12:48:29 PM PDT

  •  This is a very important issue - (10+ / 0-)

    I've already sent an email in favor of the joint EAA/AOPA initiative, and would urge all interested parties to generate as much support as possible.

    Thank you!

  •  We can reject the premise that the medical (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    sphealey

    requirement for renewal at a specific age reflects ageism per se.  The main issue with cognitive impairment is that being able to recognize it requires a brain that is functioning and thinking clearly.

    Certainly, some individuals will live into their 90s and beyond without major cognitive impairment.  But it's still true that people of any age who are cognitively impaired may not be able to tell when they are not thinking or functioning clearly.

    The common effects of aging that can result in cognitive impairment are well known. It's undeniable that a cohort of persons over a certain age have a well established risk of cognitive impairment compared to any younger cohort(s).

    We had a case a few years ago where an experienced pilot flew a small plan up the east river. When he banked left he failed to climb fast enough and crashed into a residential apartment building, killing himself his passenger, and 2 (or a few) people on the ground. After that, pilots were no longer trusted to use their own judgment about flying in that corridor. The risk for an occasional error was just too high.

    I see the medical requirement you lay out in the diary the same way. The risk profile for the pilot is not the same just because he has many years of experience.

    Your diary presents a compelling case to require functional driver's license renewals after age 70.

    "They did not succeed in taking away our voice" - Angelique Kidjo - Opening the Lightning In a Bottle concert at Radio City Music Hall in New York City - 2003

    by LilithGardener on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 01:09:15 PM PDT

    •  flew a small [plane] up the East river nt (0+ / 0-)

      "They did not succeed in taking away our voice" - Angelique Kidjo - Opening the Lightning In a Bottle concert at Radio City Music Hall in New York City - 2003

      by LilithGardener on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 01:10:29 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  The pilot of that plane was Cory Lidle (11+ / 0-)

      a pitcher for the New York Yankees. He had an instructor with him. Both Lidle and the instructor had current medical certificates.  It would be very hard to make a case that Cory Lidle had impaired eye-hand coordination.

      It is one thing to look closely at a pilot, but to demand unneeded and expensive tests just because of number of birthdays. This diary is not so much about the medical certificate as the design limitations placed on airplanes an LSA certified pilot is allowed to fly. Please read the petition on the FAA web page.

      The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand. - Sun Tzu

      by Otteray Scribe on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 01:21:56 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Both Cory Lidle and the instructor had (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        alain2112

        impaired judgment.

        Namely, both overestimated their ability to navigate a small plane through a narrow corridor that bordered an island where a few million people live and work.

        "They did not succeed in taking away our voice" - Angelique Kidjo - Opening the Lightning In a Bottle concert at Radio City Music Hall in New York City - 2003

        by LilithGardener on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 01:56:04 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  You are talking about an airspace issue. (7+ / 0-)

          My diary has nothing at all to do with airspace utilization or ATC problems.  

          This is about changing the specifications for LSA aircraft.  The primary change proposed is to lift the 1,350 pound maximum weight limit and increase seating from two to four.  There is little difference between the way a 1,350 plane flies and the way a 2,200 plane flies. The primary difference is the designers do not have to cut as many corners to save weight.  Also, a larger, roomier airplane is more comfortable and less tiring to fly.  

          Recreational pilots who simply want to fly on pretty days cannot justify spending hundreds, or even thousands of dollars on license renewal every two years.  They are opting to let their Third Class medical certificate lapse and take advantage of the LSA rules. The problem is weight limit and cramped space under present LSA rules.

          I don't know of any LSA pilot who is interested in barreling through crowded airspace at three or four miles a minute.  Even people like me. Qualified to do it? Yes indeed. I have both multi-engine and instrument ratings, but if you catch me flying up the East River corridor, just lock me away, because you will know I have lost my mind.

          The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand. - Sun Tzu

          by Otteray Scribe on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 05:19:01 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

          •  You could update your diary at the top to state: (0+ / 0-)

            No comments are welcome from anyone who disagrees with my action call.

            You'll save yourself and others time and irritation.

            "They did not succeed in taking away our voice" - Angelique Kidjo - Opening the Lightning In a Bottle concert at Radio City Music Hall in New York City - 2003

            by LilithGardener on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 05:33:36 PM PDT

            [ Parent ]

            •  In that case, I must simply disagree with ANYTHING (8+ / 0-)

              you might wish to say..at any time...on any subject...

              And in case you think I DON'T know what I'm talking about, would you care to match this?

              Deputy Air Show Co-ordinator, Royal Air Force

              Flying Services Manager, Farnborough - Society of British Aerospace Companies

              Senior Staff, East Midlands International

              National Executive, Air Education and Recreation Organization (UK)

              Technical Committee, UK Airport Operators' Association (4 year term)

              General Aviation Committee, UK Airport Operator's Association (4 year term)

              Manager, National Air Transport Collection, Science Museum Wroughton

              I won't bother going on any further as my fingers hurt.......

              I suggest that you carefully consider ANY future statement!

              'Per Ardua Ad Astra'

              by shortfinals on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 06:07:59 PM PDT

              [ Parent ]

              •  Sure (0+ / 0-)

                if that's what floats your boat, er, I mean if that's what puts air under your wings be my guest.

                Happy flying!

                "They did not succeed in taking away our voice" - Angelique Kidjo - Opening the Lightning In a Bottle concert at Radio City Music Hall in New York City - 2003

                by LilithGardener on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 06:15:07 PM PDT

                [ Parent ]

    •  Here is the problem and an illustration (10+ / 0-)

      of how silly the current weight rules are.  A Cessna 120 is legal as an LSA.  A Cessna 140 is NOT leagal.  The difference? They are identical airplanes, except the 140 has flaps and the 120 does not.  The few pounds of added weight of the flap mechanism puts the 140 over the legal maximum.  

      In case you are not familiar with flaps, they allow and airplane to land at a slower speed and keep it under control. Thus the safer airplane is illegal and the less safe one is legal.  Go figure.

      The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand. - Sun Tzu

      by Otteray Scribe on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 01:35:21 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Boats suffer from the same issue (0+ / 0-)

        - which is that they have to draw the line somewhere.

        That is why no permit is needed to ride a jetski in New York harbor, but one needs a bicycle permit* to take one's bicycle in the NYC subway.

        *It's cheap and good for life, and empowers you to take your bike in the front car on any subway and on all trains.

        "They did not succeed in taking away our voice" - Angelique Kidjo - Opening the Lightning In a Bottle concert at Radio City Music Hall in New York City - 2003

        by LilithGardener on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 01:58:43 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

  •  What bothers me... (7+ / 0-)

    .. is that many of these LSA are more difficult to fly than a Skyhawk, or Warrior. Our club has a CTLS, and it's quite a handful on short final.. throw in even a light, gusty X-wind and it's downright scary... approach speed is very critical, and reflexes are tested.... where in comparison, a Warrior/Skyhawk is very forgiving, and almost lands itself...

    •  One of my problems with the LSA class (6+ / 0-)

      appeared when our Commemorative Air Force chapter got one.  65hp Taylorcraft.  When it came time for me to get checked out in it, we calculated wight and balance.  There is little or nothing to spare for two average size people.

      IMHO, the weight restriction makes the average LSA dangerous. They are not forgiving airplanes, and the light weight turns them into a monster in gusting wind.  The even more scary thing is, many of the pilots who want to fly them are beginners who never wanted to go through the hassle of a medical. Low time pilot, unforgiving airplane. What could possibly go wrong?

      If the FAA refuses to reconsider the current restrictions, you can bet pilot advocacy groups will be back.  

      The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand. - Sun Tzu

      by Otteray Scribe on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 06:45:31 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  Apples and Oranges, I'm Afraid (5+ / 0-)

      The Warrior III has 180 hp, an MTOW of about 2440 lbs, a stall speed of 50 kts, and a wing loading at gross of about 14.4 lbs/sq ft.

      Similarly, the Skyhawk has 160 hp, an MTOW of about 2550 lbs, a stall speed of 48 kts, and a wing loading at gross of about 14.7 lbs/sq ft.

      By contrast, the CTLS has 100 hp, an MTOW of 1320 lbs, a stall speed of 39 kts, and a wing loading at gross of about 12.2 lbs/sq ft.

      The point being that heavier, higher wing loading, and faster makes the PA-28 and C-172 less affected by turbulence and cross winds.

      I am just a tyro, but I have flown 152's and CTLS's. The CTLS is a lot more fun, but you MUST use the rudder.

      P.S. I couldn't afford a 172 on a routine basis anyway.

      "Facts are meaningless. You could use facts to prove anything even remotely true." -- H. Simpson

      by midnight lurker on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 07:13:43 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  It is next to impossible to rent an LSA (4+ / 0-)

        class airplane around here.  Every FBO I have talked to tells me they are not worth the headache and insurance is so high on an LSA they are not cost effective for rentals, if you can find insurers at all.  A used CTLS runs from about $75K to $95K on average.  Of course C-150s are plentiful and cheap, but have a gross takeoff weight of about 1,600 which takes them way out of current LSA class.  

        This is one big reason for the push to move the bar for LSA weight standards.  You are right about rudder in very light aircraft.  Adverse yaw has pretty much been engineered out of heavier airplanes like the C-172.  You don't read about very many of them spinning in on a turn from base to final.  

        The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand. - Sun Tzu

        by Otteray Scribe on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 08:00:38 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

      •  The case of the Ercoupe is a total mess.... (4+ / 0-)

        ....given the fact that a 415C or 415CD is accepted as an LSA under FAR 1.1, but if converted to a 415D is NOT....and remains no longer an LSA even if de-converted to its orginal standard

        I'd pick a 415C or CD, for its docile handling, low stalling speed and high crosswind capability (and that lovely undercarriage)

        'Per Ardua Ad Astra'

        by shortfinals on Fri Mar 22, 2013 at 08:06:18 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

      •  Apples/oranges for sure... (4+ / 0-)

        .. what bothers me though, is that aircraft that require more skill, have lower training standards, and require no medical certification.

        I wouldn't argue for stricter LSA standards.. I'd argue that easier-to-fly, safe and more docile aircraft also fall under LSA... with LSA pilots flying even an IFR certified Warrior/Skyhawk, still restricted by LSA airspace/weather standards.

        I, for example, have not flown in 90+ days. The fact that the club would require me to go up with an instructor if I flew today aside (any aircraft).. I'd need/want a couple hours and several landings before taking off on a trip in the CTLS.. I'd need about 30 minutes and two landings before feeling comfy in a Warrior.

        IOW.. I'd rather the aging, recreational pilot.. or the low-timer punching holes in the sky, to be getting their $200 burgers in time-tested trainers, rather than borderline experimental aircraft, that can test the skills of an F-16 pilot..  :)

        •  You got the point perfectly. (3+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          RiveroftheWest, KenBee, shortfinals

          Thanks.

          The Light Sport Pilot flight operation restrictions are not going to change, nor should they. IMHO, the LSA certification needs to be based on performance instead of an arbitrary weight restriction, or if they use weight restrictions, let's have them make sense.  When the FAA envisioned a simple and easy to fly aircraft, somebody was not thinking ahead.  Twitchy, hard to fly homebuilts or other very light, less sturdy machines that require advanced skills.  As was noted above by midnight lurker, you have to quick on the rudder, and they are a handful in gusty wind because they are so light.  

          So much for the "easy to fly" part.

          The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand. - Sun Tzu

          by Otteray Scribe on Sat Mar 23, 2013 at 06:58:51 AM PDT

          [ Parent ]

        •  Well, Would You Go As Australia Went? (0+ / 0-)

          With the "motor car medical" introduced in Australia, the aircraft restrictions are:

          3300 lb MTOW
          Pilot plus one passenger
          Day VFR
          10,000 feet or below

          As far as I know, there are no speed or horsepower restrictions. That would be nice in a way, but I still couldn't afford to rent a 172 on a regular basis.

          P.S. What 's wrong with having to use the rudder? It should be more than a footrest.

          "Facts are meaningless. You could use facts to prove anything even remotely true." -- H. Simpson

          by midnight lurker on Sat Mar 23, 2013 at 09:25:29 AM PDT

          [ Parent ]

  •  It's a difficult regulatory question, age. (3+ / 0-)

    I have a good older friend that falls asleep...anywhere, anytime.

    He feels he is safe and can handle it, and generally does, He has raced cars, very fast ones...and works with dangerous tools, all this in his mid 70's.

    Sadly, or fortunately, he struck a parked car and wrecked both of them, and doesn't remember how or what happened.

    The DMV is properly making him get reexamined and hopefully they will flunk him...which is as worrisome for the possibility of suicide as it is the possibility of injuring others if he drives, and he may do both drive w/o a license, and I don't know what else..but it is worrisome.

    He has two kids nearby, but he is cussedly independent, so they have a big uphill climb. I hope he wakes up of a morning and decides to give up driving because he shouldn't.

    Same issues, different vehicles.
       Self blindedness can affect anybody, age is not filter for that. I am sure there are pilots who act the same way and force friends and family to enforce the bad news.

    You make a good case OS, good luck with it.

    This machine kills Fascists.

    by KenBee on Sat Mar 23, 2013 at 12:02:53 AM PDT

    •  Thanks Ken. (4+ / 0-)

      I have had to make official recommendations to DMV to revoke driving privileges.  Most of the time it is due to dementia or an uncontrolled seizure disorder. The DMV itself often picks up failing vision when licenses are renewed.  

      I have been a consultant to the FAA over the years as well.  One of the saddest cases was a high time Air National Guard pilot who had been flying C-141 transports for the Guard, and had his own small airplane he flew for business and pleasure.  Makng it worse, the fellow's real day job was educator and he had an earned PhD.  

      The good doctor/pilot was going home from work when a guy ran a stop sign and T-boned him. He was knocked silly in the wreck and went to the ER where he was told he had a mild concussion.  He recovered just fine, but began to have headaches.  When his license came up for renewal, the form one has to fill out asks the aviator to list every doctor visit and the purpose, even if it just to get a flu shot.  He listed the visit to the ER. As a result, the FAA ordered him to come see me. I was able to determine he had developed diplopia, and was ever so slightly seeing double. That was the reason for the headaches. That ended his flying right then and there.  

      It would have been discovered soon enough when he got fitted for new glasses because he blamed his headaches on eyestrain and was about to get new glasses.

      The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand. - Sun Tzu

      by Otteray Scribe on Sat Mar 23, 2013 at 05:15:10 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

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