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  Slavery is the "New Black" in Hollywood because of the new movies Lincoln and Django Unchained. Both movies say more about Hollywood than about slavery. The first movie presents slavery as a thing that white people debated (the absence of Frederick Douglas is inexcusable). The latter movie is just an excuse for a blood-splattered, blacksploitation movie (which probably makes it more honest on the subject of slavery).

  However, when Danny Glover wanted to make an epic, historically accurate film about slaves overcoming seemingly insurmountable odds to achieve freedom, Hollywood wasn't interested.

 "Producers said 'It's a nice project, a great project... where are the white heroes?'" he told the press during a stay in Paris this month for a seminar on film.
   "I couldn't get the money here, I couldn't get the money in Britain. I went to everybody. You wouldn't believe the number of producers based in Europe, and in the States, that I went to," he said.
  "The first question you get, is 'Is it a black film?' All of them agree, it's not going to do good in Europe, it's not going to do good in Japan.
 Glover wanted to do a movie about Toussaint Louverture, one of the most interesting characters in history of one of the most important revolutions in history. Without a doubt, the Haitian Revolution was a far more important event to outlawing global slavery than anything accomplished in the United States.

How Haitians helped shape America

  In October 1779, over 500 free Haitian blacks fought against the British at the Siege of Savannah. They fought and died for the independence of the American colonies.

 As it stands now, the monument features statues of two Haitian troops with rifles raised on either side of a fellow soldier who has fallen with a bullet wound to his chest.
    The fourth statue, a drummer boy, depicts a young Henri Christophe, who served in Savannah as an adolescent and went on to become Haiti’s first president – and ultimately king – after it won independence.
 January 8, 1811, almost 32 years later, the largest slave revolt in American history occurred near New Orleans. Between 200 and 500 black slaves marched on New Orleans. It was brutally put down. 95 were killed or executed, and the leaders had their heads put on pikes (one leader, Deslondes, was mutilated and then burned alive).
   The fear from the size of the slave revolt ended French settler opposition to American soldiers entering the new Louisiana Territory.

 photo 1811_zps3cc1b15e.jpg

   What does the 1811 German Coast Uprising have to do with Haiti? Many of the slaves involved in this uprising were brought there against their will by slaveowners fleeing the Haitian Revolution. In fact, the inspiration for this revolt can be traced directly back to Haiti.

  the 1804 Haitian revolution victory inspired slaves around the colonies to rebel....
   Copies of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man were found in slave quarters.
About 20 years earlier the government of Haiti had outlawed slaves reading the Rights of Man under pain of death.

 The United States never recognized the independence of Haiti until 1862.

  What could have happened in those 32 years to change things so much? The answer to that question starts in the streets of Paris and ends on the burnt and bloodsoaked battlefields of Haiti.

Why the Haitian Revolution matters

   There are three points you need to understand about the Haitain Revolution to fully appreciate it:

1) It was the only completely successful slave revolt in all of human history.

  Think about that for a moment. Slavery had existed and slaves had been revolting for tens of thousands of years, long before the start of recorded history. During those tens of thousands of years people had also been dreaming of the day that slavery would be outlawed. They were considered utopian idealists.
   Slavery had been around for so long it was considered part of the human condition, just like war and wealth inequality.

   It was Haiti that proved all the skeptics wrong.

2) The slaves of Haiti overcame increadible odds.
    To put their revolution into perspective, let's compare it to the American Revolution.

   The population of the 13 Colonies in 1775 was 2,400,000.
    The British army and German mercenaries in 1779 had around 60,000 men in arms in America, although that included Canada and Florida.
   Around 25,000 colonists died directly from the war, for a ratio of 1 in 96.
 6,000 French and Spanish allies also died in our cause.
     The war lasted 8 years.

   Haiti, OTOH, had a population of just 520,000 at the start of their revolution - 452,000 black slaves.
   In 1802 Napoleon sent an armada of 43,000 soldiers to defeat the slaves - nearly the same size of army the British used against the entire American Colonies. 90% of those soldiers never returned to France.
   Speaking of the British, the rebellious slaves defeated their army three years earlier. The British lost 80,000 men to battle and disease in Haiti, far more than they lost in the American Revolution.
   The slaves also defeated a Spanish army.
   And before that they defeated another French army.
  No one knows how many Haitian slaves died in this revolt. However, estimates generally put the number between 150,000 and 200,000, for a ratio of 1 in 3.
    Unlike the American colonists, the black slaves had no allies.
      The war lasted 13 years.

3) The Haitian Revolution ended the global slave trade.

   The Abolition Movement was making some progress before the Haitian Revolution, but its successes were limited to the gradual phasing out of slavery, freeing future children of slaves, in states such as Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and outlawing any new slavery in the Northwest Territories.
    Massachusetts outright abolition was an outlier.
  Only the nations of Portugal and Russia had outlawed slavery before the start of Haiti's Revolution.

   Within 4 years of the victory of Haiti's slaves in 1804, Britain, Denmark-Norway, and the United States had outlawed the global slave trade. A few years later Spain outright outlawed slavery except in its Caribbean colonies. Netherlands abolished the slave trade a few years after that.
   This is not a coincidence. As shown by the 1811 German Coast Uprising, slaves defeating their masters can inspire other slaves to revolt. The only way to stop that from happening is not allowing the slaves to interact and transfer dangerous ideas.

   Influenced by the slave revolts in most of its Caribbean colonies, and by the leftists who executed the King, France outlawed slavery in 1794. However, Napoleon reintroduced slavery in 1802. France didn't finally outlaw the slave trade until 1818.

  This is the end of Part 1.

Originally posted to gjohnsit on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 01:26 PM PDT.

Also republished by Black Kos community, Invisible People, In Support of Labor and Unions, and History for Kossacks.

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Comment Preferences

  •  Interesting. (10+ / 0-)

    You're right, I didn't know for one. With all the talk about racism, this should be of great interest.

    "I'm an antiwar propagandist as accused by democrats. Not even republicans have called me that."

    by BigAlinWashSt on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 02:10:30 PM PDT

    •  I had to break it into parts (17+ / 0-)

      because the Haitian Revolution has so many dynamics.
         For starters, it was first and foremost a civil war.
      Plus, it's impossible to talk about without including generous portions of the French Revolution.

        Since you mentioned racism, the Haitian Revolution demonstrates that racism takes a backseat to capital. In other words, when push comes to shove money is much more important than skin color.
         I will demonstrate this fact in latter editions.

      “Wall Street had been doing business with pieces of paper; and now someone asked for a dollar, and it was discovered that the dollar had been mislaid.” ― Upton Sinclair

      by gjohnsit on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 02:18:30 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Gjohnsit, don't know if you've seen the movie (4+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        poco, gjohnsit, david78209, RiveroftheWest


         photo quemadobun.jpg

        In the 1960's movie
        QUEMADO (BURN - Youtube link), William Walker (the original gangster of filibusteros), is fictionally portrayed with great appropriate license by Marlon Brando. While his character explains the rationality behind supporting independence & an end to slavery, he yet provides reality-based clues as to why undocumented workers are both a permanent fixture of our landscape & a benefit to capital.
        Scene beginning at the .40 mark of the QUEMADO clip from Youtube has Brando explaining elites on slavery vs. wage labor.

        America's greatest political dynasty...the Kaan

        by catilinus on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 06:56:58 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

      •  Necessity of the Cotton Gin (4+ / 0-)

        Until the cotton gin was invented only in the early 1790s, growing cotton in the American South was a chump's game.  The process of removing the cotton seeds from the short-staple cotton grown in the US was so labor intensive that profits could be pretty scarce in cultivating it.  Since most of the other slave-using agricultural crops (tobacco, rice, indigo and sugar) tended to deplete the soils where grown, at the turn of the 19th Century the prospective demand for slaves was trending downward, not up as one might suspect.  Tobacco growers in the Upper South were particularly hard hit since tobacco growing plays hob with the soil and the Lower South did not offer a particularly good climate for growing tobacco.  Rice and indigo offered some potential in the southern Atlantic coastal states, but other sources cut into export demand.  Only sugar cane in Louisiana offered any sustainable potential at the turn of the 19th century, which accounts for their continued need for slaves, as in the sugar islands of the Caribbean or Brazil.  The cotton gin changed all that and made the entire Lower South a potential agricultural gold mine so long as slaves could be used in the fields.

        "Love the Truth, defend the Truth, speak the Truth, and hear the Truth" - Jan Hus, d.1415 CE

        by PrahaPartizan on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 08:52:47 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

  •  Well done again, gjohnsit (13+ / 0-)

    There was a brief window in the mid-sixties when I learned about Frederick Douglass and Toussaint L'Ouverture in public school in DC.  ;)    I think this had something to do with getting people on board with the 1964 civil rights legislation.  In a couple of years when my sister entered school things like this had been dropped from the curriculum.  Sort of like the rollback of Reconstruction....

    "Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold...The best lack all conviction, while the worst Are full of passionate intensity" -W.B. Yeats

    by LucyandByron on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 02:10:53 PM PDT

  •  Thank you. Looking forward to the rest. (9+ / 0-)

    Perhaps Mr Glover could get some traction for his project if he thought along the lines of "The Last Samurai" Where the Last Samurai is, of course, a white guy.

    There were a couple of other films like that, but I can't think of them at the moment.

    Or maybe he should just dress up everyone as Gladiators and set it in Rome, somehow. That always does well.

    Will you be covering how Haiti came to be reduced, iirc, starting in the early 19th C?

    Actual Democrats is the surest, quickest. route to More Democrats

    by Jim P on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 02:18:23 PM PDT

  •  Great diary didn't know about the 1811 German (7+ / 0-)

    Coast uprising's roots in the Haitian slave revolt. Thanks!

    -1.63/ -1.49 "Speaking truth to power" (with snark of course)!

    by dopper0189 on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 02:20:08 PM PDT

  •  It is so sad that this magnificent revolution... (12+ / 0-) not studied almost anywhere.  There were other slave revolts in Brazil even before the American revolution.  In Brazil there is some conscience about the Quilombos;

    The most famous quilombo was Palmares, an independent, self-sustaining republic near Recife, established in about 1600. Palmares was massive and consisted of several settlements with a combined population of over 30,000 renegades, mostly blacks. It was the only quilombo to survive almost an entire century, with the second longest-standing quilombo at Mato Grosso lasting only 25 years.[7]


    At its height, Palmares had a population of over 30,000. Forced to defend against repeated attacks by Portuguese colonists, the warriors of Palmares were experts in capoeira, a dance and martial art form.

    Certainly ex-slaves brought from Haiti were a great influence.   Perhaps another reason why is that the Spanish Slave Law that applied in Lousiana allowed one day off (Sunday) when slaves could rest and meet and therefore organize (or play music, something that eventually turned New Orleans in the music capital of the world).  In the rest of the colonies and then the US no day of rest or assembly was allowed since the Stono Rebellion  in South Carloina in 1739.

    Perhaps the first slaves to obtain some freedom were the Cimarrones in Panama in the 16th Century.

    Slaves from Africa understood, preferred and obtained freedom before anyone else in the New World after the conquest by Spain.

    Do we understand this new form of slavery I call "paycheck-to-paycheck slavery."?

    Daily Kos an oasis of truth. Truth that leads to action.

    by Shockwave on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 02:21:34 PM PDT

  •  Fantastic diary, g, thanks. (9+ / 0-)

    you might want to edit, "France abolished slavery in 1974"?

    Too many in this country feel the Constitution should include the 2nd Amendment. And nothing else.

    by blueoregon on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 02:31:34 PM PDT

  •  thank you, gjohsnsit (6+ / 0-)

    extraordinary work.  i'm looking forward to your next post on this.  it's amazing to me that so few people know there was a successful slave uprising in Haiti.  in fact, it's amazing and disappointing that Haiti is so often invisible to many.

  •  Thank you from a history buff. (5+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    gjohnsit, Shockwave, Avila, poco, Oh Mary Oh

    I cannot wait to read part two. Any books you can recommend about this?

    That passed by; this can, too. - Deor

    by stevie avebury on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 02:56:08 PM PDT

  •  Outstanding, as usual ! n/t (6+ / 0-)

    "I always thought if you worked hard enough and tried hard enough, things would work out. I was wrong." --Katharine Graham

    by bobswern on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 02:58:23 PM PDT

  •  The revolution also scared the hell out of US (11+ / 0-)

    slave owners further enforcing their paranoia that the world sought to take away their way of life; a perspective that is still alive today albeit in a slightly different shape.

    collards, meat, butter, sourdough, eggs, cheese, raw milk

    by Tirge Caps on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 03:03:53 PM PDT

  •  Just on a technical point: (8+ / 0-)
    Only the nations of Portugal and Russia had outlawed slavery before the start of Haiti's Revolution
    What we usually translate as serfdom in Russia [крепостная права] was much closer to what we usually call slavery, so I wouldn't say Russia outlawed it until the Emancipation of 1861.  What they'd done earlier is eliminate a class called the холоп, which we sometimes translate as slave, but was something between a domestic slave and an indentured servant.  The "elimination of slavery" was aimed at people who sold themselves into (tax-free) servitude to pay debts, and forced them to become taxable property instead... so in fact, these laws made them more like slaves.

    I'd be wary of applying our terms to theirs, but I definitely'd suggest that Russian serfdom is what we classically think of as slavery.  For all intents and purposes Russia emancipated that class of people in 1861, long after Haiti.

    Otherwise good diary.  I don't know how you're qualifying completely successful above, but there were other slave rebellions that scored more modest victories, like the independence of San Lorenzo de los Negros (Yanga).

    Saint, n. A dead sinner revised and edited. - Ambrose Bierce

    by pico on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 03:04:30 PM PDT

    •  Russia and Yanga (5+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      pico, Brecht, Avila, corvo, Oh Mary Oh

      I was aware of Russia and simply mentioned it because I didn't want to debate the finer points of what was slavery. I figured that if I didn't mention Russia then someone would be pointing out that they technically outlawed slavery, and thus we would still be having this discussion.

        But as for Yanga, you have enlightened me. I was not aware of it. I knew about Jamaican Maroons and another modest success by slaves in Suriname, but they weren't officially acknowledged like Yanga and Haiti.
        Thanks for adding to my knowledge.

      “Wall Street had been doing business with pieces of paper; and now someone asked for a dollar, and it was discovered that the dollar had been mislaid.” ― Upton Sinclair

      by gjohnsit on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 03:15:18 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  china outlawed slavery in the 10th century (5+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Avila, pico, a2nite, corvo, Oh Mary Oh

      by imperial decree, although unfree forms of indenture and servitude existed well up to 1949 (and one can argue that they persist in capitalist forms today), and slavery was reintroduced later on by various central asian dynasties.

      •  Re: (4+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        pico, corvo, Oh Mary Oh, wu ming

        Wikipedia says that China outlawed the slave trade in the 10th Century, but not slavery.
          Not sure who is correct.

         I don't think slavery was ever very popular in east Asia, but indentured servitude and serfdom based on debt never seems to have gone away.

        “Wall Street had been doing business with pieces of paper; and now someone asked for a dollar, and it was discovered that the dollar had been mislaid.” ― Upton Sinclair

        by gjohnsit on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 04:07:51 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  i'm pretty sure it outlawed slavery en toto (3+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          poco, gjohnsit, RiveroftheWest

          but really more on paper than in any substantive sense. it did mark a shift from the earlier society which was quite open about slavery, to one where unfree relations were more based on money than hereditary classes.

          slavery was a big thing in east and southeast asia in different periods, although the historical baggage that comes along with the english term can make it tricky to discuss different modes of unfree classes, castes, or occupations without porting over assumptions that don't necessarily exist in the non-western contexts.

  •  Danny Glover has material for a great movie (8+ / 0-)

    It would be great to see him raise independent funding, have a hit, and prove to Hollywood that there's a market for any powerful movie with a good story behind it.

    It reminds me of how Mira Nair had a hit with Mississippi Masala. She was planning her next movie, with a non-caucasion cast. Someone in Hollywood asked, weren't there any roles for white people in it? Yes, she replied - all of the waiters will be white.

    Thanks for an eye-opening diary.

    "Every man has a right to utter what he thinks truth" Samuel Johnson

    by Brecht on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 03:57:49 PM PDT

  •  What's striking is the extent to which... (6+ / 0-)

    ...our knowledge of the French Revolution comes from one person, CLR James....who was a polemicist if ever there was one.  A good one, in terms of both competence and ideological orientation, but still a polemicist. It's only in the last 20 years or so that anyone's dared to write academic histories of the Haitian Revolution to go up against James's well-researched but  decidedly unacademic version.  

    The other complication in a feel-good movie about the Haitian Revolution is that while the Toussaint/Dessalines contrast makes for great drama, the good guy dies in jail and the bad guy (at least in the "hard men" sense) wins, and he celebrates by massacring the Whites who (inexplicably!) remain at the end. James found that part tiresome and refused to write about it, but I don't think the movie would have that option.

    You know, I sometimes think if I could see, I'd be kicking a lot of ass. -Stevie Wonder at the Glastonbury Festival, 2010

    by Rich in PA on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 04:03:09 PM PDT

    •  Oops, I mean Haitian revolution (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      bobswern, Oh Mary Oh

      I got sidetracked by the fact that James spends so much time on the French Revolution.

      You know, I sometimes think if I could see, I'd be kicking a lot of ass. -Stevie Wonder at the Glastonbury Festival, 2010

      by Rich in PA on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 04:07:02 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  Haiti's Revolution was a civil war (7+ / 0-)

      and all civil wars get very messy.
         Toussaint was a tyrant in the short time he was in charge. He brought back a form of serfdom to get the economy moving again.

        However, he showed a lot more mercy to his prisoners than the whites ever showed to the captured slaves (i.e. none).
         Plus, it was only Dessalines that massacred the remaining whites (in the same way that the whites killed thousands of slaves - by drowning). This happened after Toussaint was already dead, so they wouldn't have to show it in the movie.

      “Wall Street had been doing business with pieces of paper; and now someone asked for a dollar, and it was discovered that the dollar had been mislaid.” ― Upton Sinclair

      by gjohnsit on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 04:13:18 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  This gets me back to James, though (0+ / 0-)

        His point was that the revolution would have failed without Dessalines, the man and his methods.  If he's right, a movies that stops with Toussaint's death would be historically, dramatically, and even didactically truncated.

        You know, I sometimes think if I could see, I'd be kicking a lot of ass. -Stevie Wonder at the Glastonbury Festival, 2010

        by Rich in PA on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 04:16:00 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  I don't agree (1+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:

          They could do the movie in the exact same way as they did Braveheart, with an introduction of Dessalines and a brief mention at the end of the movie that freedom was achieved shortly after.

          “Wall Street had been doing business with pieces of paper; and now someone asked for a dollar, and it was discovered that the dollar had been mislaid.” ― Upton Sinclair

          by gjohnsit on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 04:22:38 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

    •  If you don't like CLR James (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Brecht, corvo, Oh Mary Oh

      You might want to read Laurent Dubois.
        He's not an exciting writer, but he's well researched.

      “Wall Street had been doing business with pieces of paper; and now someone asked for a dollar, and it was discovered that the dollar had been mislaid.” ― Upton Sinclair

      by gjohnsit on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 04:17:05 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  A couple of books of interest (5+ / 0-)

    One is by Isabelle Allende, who's made quite the literary niche for herself writing about the intersection between cultures. It's called Island Beneath the Sea, a substantial effort at historical fiction, which also follows a fleeing plantation owner from Haiti to New Orleans, and the transition from the French to American authority with the Louisiana Purchase. The protagonist is a female slave.

    The other, The Black Count, is as much about France and Napoleonic times as it is about Haiti. It's a biography of the father of novelist Alexander Dumas entitled The Black Count, by Thomas Reiss.

    I had a reading binge on topics French last year, and came across this recent, which has since been awarded a Pulitzer. I could say it's excellent, but others such as Prof. Henry Louis Gates (of Beer Summit fame) who said:

    The Black Count is a dazzling achievement. I learned something new virtually on every page. No one who reads this magnificent biography will be able to read The Count of Monte Cristo or any history of slaver in the New World the same way again."
    I'd say something similar, but I think it has considerably more credibility from the good professor.

    Mark Twain: It ain't what you don't know that gets you into trouble. It's what you know for sure that just ain't so.

    by Land of Enchantment on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 04:28:00 PM PDT

  •  Susan Buck-Morss wrote an amazing article, (5+ / 0-)

    detailing how our notion of the dialectic, based on Hegelian concepts of master-slave owe so much to the Haitian revolution.

    That is, the dialectic--thesis/antithesis/synthesis--based on the master-slave dialectic in Hegel's Philosophy of History, was deeply influenced by the Haitian revolution. Hegel's philosophy of history was written just as the events of the revolution were occurring, so there is no way that Hegel would have been unaware of them.

    In “Hegel and Haiti,” Buck-Morss’s central histori­cal claim is that Hegel’s discussion of freedom, gener­ally, and his formulation of the “master-slave dialectic,” specifically, were directly informed by his awareness of the Haitian Revolution. This argument, Buck-Morss asserts, has scarcely been made, much less thoroughly investigated, by mainstream Hegel scholarship. “One wonders why the topic Hegel and Haiti has for so long been ignored. Not only have Hegel scholars failed to answer this question; they have failed, for the past two hundred years, even to ask it”

    It's *Gandhi*, not Ghandi

    by poco on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 04:34:24 PM PDT

  •  Sure (6+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    poco, Brecht, gjohnsit, bobswern, corvo, Oh Mary Oh

    Republished to History for Kossacks.

    That said, one thing. The reason we ended the international slave trade on January 1, 1808 may have had to do with Haiti, certainly, but in the Constitution it says, in Article 1, Section 9:

    The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
    "Such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit" is one of the euphemisms the Constitution uses when it means "slaves."  Close to post hoc ergo propter hoc the way you describe it in the diary.

    -7.75, -8.10; . . . Columbine, Tucson, Aurora, Sandy Hook, Boston (h/t Charles Pierce)

    by Dave in Northridge on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 04:49:57 PM PDT

  •  Thank you for this! (6+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    mickT, poco, gjohnsit, bobswern, corvo, Oh Mary Oh

    It's amazing how the Haitian Revolution has been overlooked and need I say, excised from popular history. It just wouldn't do. Next we need to talk about how France forced reparations on Haiti that impoverished the country.

  •  Every liberal in Hollywood should be willing to (6+ / 0-)

    help Glover get this made the way it should be made. Every Dem, every lefty, progressive, whatever.

    You can't make this stuff up.

    by David54 on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 06:11:08 PM PDT

  •  I recently bought a book about Gen Alexandre Dumas (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    gjohnsit, RiveroftheWest

    called The Black Count. It's very, very good, ends up having a bit of hero worship of General Dumas, but well-researched and fascinating. He was a hero in all senses of the word. From his beginnings in Haiti, to his rise in Revolutionary France, to his adventures (and imprisonment) in Italy, all very interesting, and taught me a lot about the black population in Revolutionary/early Napoleonic France.

    I'd highly recommend it to anybody interested in history, and especially liberal history fans.

    I think Danny Glover could make Dumas's life into a movie if the Haitian Revolution movie doesn't work out.

    Leftist Mormon in Utah, Born in Washington State, live in UT-04 (Matheson).

    by Gygaxian on Sun Apr 28, 2013 at 06:55:56 PM PDT

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