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OND Editors  OND is a community feature  on Daily Kos, consisting of news stories from around the world, sometimes coupled with a daily theme, original research or commentary.  Editors of OND impart their own presentation styles and content choices, typically publishing each day near 12:00AM Eastern Time.

OND Editors  consisting of founder Magnifico, regular editors maggiejean, wader, Man Oh Man, side pocket, rfall, and JML9999, alumni editors palantir, Bentliberal, Oke, jlms qkw, Interceptor7, and ScottyUrb, guest editor annetteboardman, and current editor-in-chief Neon Vincent, along with anyone else who reads and comments, informs and entertains you.

BBC:Lebanese Shia pilgrims held hostages in Syria 'freed'

Lebanese Shia pilgrims held hostages in Syria 'freed'

Nine Lebanese Shia pilgrims held hostage in Syria have been freed, Lebanon's interior minster has said.

The pilgrims have crossed over into southern Turkey, and will arrive back in Lebanon soon, according to Interior Minister Marwan Charbel.

The nine were part of a group of 11 who were seized while making their way back to Lebanon in May 2012 after a tour of holy sites in Iran.

Two of the group were subsequently released.

BBC:'No notification' of Saudi Arabia snub - UN chief Ban

'No notification' of Saudi Arabia snub - UN chief Ban

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon says he has received no notification from Saudi Arabia that it will turn down a seat on the UN Security Council.

Earlier the Saudi foreign ministry said it had turned down the non-permanent seat, accusing the world body of "double standards".

The ministry said the UN needs to be reformed first.

It said the Security Council had failed in its duties towards Syria as well as in other world conflicts.

BBC:RBS chief urges staff to focus on recovery as break-up talk grows

RBS chief urges staff to focus on recovery as break-up talk grows

Royal Bank of Scotland's new chief executive has told staff not to be distracted by speculation that the company may be broken up.

In a memo Ross McEwan urged staff to focus on rebuilding the bank and doing the best possible job for customers.

The government, which owns 81% of RBS, is reviewing whether the bank should be split into "good" and "bad" arms.

In his memo, Mr McEwan said that "at some point soon we'll reach the end of the review".

BBC:Fire in Brazilian port of Santos burns tonnes of raw sugar

Fire in Brazilian port of Santos burns tonnes of raw sugar

A fire in Brazil's largest port has burnt some 180,000 tonnes of raw sugar, damaging six warehouses and pushing international prices to a one-year high.

The authorities in the port of Santos said it took six hours to bring the fire under control.

The cause of the blaze is still being investigated.

Brazil is the world's main sugar exporter, accounting for nearly half of international sales.

BBC:Kenya attack: Westgate mall bodies 'probably gunmen'

Kenya attack: Westgate mall bodies 'probably gunmen'

Two charred bodies pulled from Kenya's Westgate shopping centre on Thursday are "highly likely" to be two of the attackers, an MP has told the BBC.

Ndung'u Gethenji, chairman of the committee investigating the attack, said AK47 rifles used by the militants were found next to the bodies.

The authorities will now conduct forensic tests on the bodies.

At least 67 people died when suspected al-Shabab militants stormed the Nairobi shopping centre on 21 September.

BBC:Asiana Flight 214: No charges in death of survivor

Asiana Flight 214: No charges in death of survivor

A firefighter responding to a San Francisco plane crash who ran over and killed a survivor covered in flame-retardant foam will not be charged.

The death of Ye Mengyuan, 16, "was a tragic accident", not a crime, San Mateo County District Attorney Steve Wagstaffe said in a statement.

Ye, a Chinese student, was alive on the airport tarmac after Asiana flight 214 crashed on 6 July.

All but three of the 307 people on board survived

Reuters:Exclusive: NSA delayed anti-leak software at base where Snowden worked -officials

Exclusive: NSA delayed anti-leak software at base where Snowden worked -officials

(Reuters) - The U.S. National Security Agency failed to install the most up-to-date anti-leak software at a site in Hawaii before contractor Edward Snowden went to work there and downloaded tens of thousands of highly classified documents, current and former U.S. officials told Reuters.

Well before Snowden joined Booz Allen Hamilton last spring and was assigned to the NSA site as a systems administrator, other U.S. government facilities had begun to install software designed to spot attempts by unauthorized people to access or download data.

The purpose of the software, which in the NSA's case is made by a division of Raytheon Co, is to block so-called "insider threats" - a response to an order by President Barack Obama to tighten up access controls for classified information in the wake of the leak of hundreds of thousands of Pentagon and State Department documents by an Army private to WikiLeaks website in 2010.

The main reason the software had not been installed at the NSA's Hawaii facility by the time Snowden took up his assignment there was that it had insufficient bandwidth to comfortably install it and ensure its effective operation, according to one of the officials.

Reuters:Pakistan tells U.N. at least 400 civilians killed by drone strikes

Pakistan tells U.N. at least 400 civilians killed by drone strikes

(Reuters) - Pakistan has confirmed that of some 2,200 people killed by drone strikes in the past decade, at least 400 were civilians and an additional 200 victims were deemed "probable non-combatants," a U.N. human rights investigator said on Friday.

Ben Emmerson, U.N. special rapporteur on human rights and counterterrorism, also urged the United States to release its own data on the number of civilian casualties caused by its drone strikes.

Emmerson said Pakistan's Foreign Ministry told him it had recorded at least 330 drone strikes in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan's largely lawless region bordering Afghanistan, since 2004.

Clearing out militant border sanctuaries is seen by Washington as crucial to bringing stability to Afghanistan, particularly as the U.S.-led combat mission ends in 2014. Most, but not all, attacks with unmanned aerial vehicles have been by the United States. Britain and Israel have also used them.

Reuters:GM aids Opel by booking Russian profits at loss-making unit

GM aids Opel by booking Russian profits at loss-making unit

(Reuters) - General Motors (GM.N) has decided to put its Russian operations back under the control of its European wing - a victory for GM Europe's new president and a signal of support for a workforce that has endured massive job cuts in the hunt for profitability.

GM made a turnaround of its European business a top priority after racking up around $18 billion in losses over the past 12 years, and is investing billions more despite calls from Morgan Stanley to sell Opel and its UK sister Vauxhall at virtually any cost.

Russia is Opel's only major growth region - a lucrative geography where margin-eroding discounts are far less common than in a western European market set to plumb lows not seen since 1993.

From January, General Motors International Operations (GMIO), based in Shanghai, China, will hand the business back to GM Europe (GME) after three years.

Reuters:Analysis: China's pioneers to drive recovery in solar equipment demand

Analysis: China's pioneers to drive recovery in solar equipment demand

(Reuters) - As China's solar panel makers venture into uncharted markets, the handful of companies that supply equipment for their plants are dusting off their order books to meet a revival in demand.

GT Advanced Technologies Inc (GTAT.O) and Meyer Burger Technology AG MBTN.S expect a new wave of orders from next year, when worldwide spending by solar companies is forecast to rise for the first time since 2011.

"Demand is coming from many more countries than previously, and the emerging markets are waking up to the potential from solar," said Edward Guinness, co-portfolio manager at Guinness Atkinson Asset Management in London.

China is the world's largest solar panel maker. Its companies, stung by a slowdown in the once-lucrative European market, are moving into Latin America, Africa, the Middle East and southeast Asia, where demand for solar power is rising fast.

Reuters:JPMorgan in $4 billion deal with U.S. housing agency

JPMorgan in $4 billion deal with U.S. housing agency

(Reuters) - JPMorgan Chase & Co (JPM.N) has reached a tentative $4 billion deal with the U.S. Federal Housing Finance Agency to settle claims that the bank misled government-sponsored mortgage agencies about the quality of mortgages it sold them during the housing boom, according to a person familiar with the matter.

JPMorgan and the FHFA, which is pursuing claims on behalf of finance agencies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, have agreed on the amount as a tentative part of a potential $11 billion global settlement with government agencies, including the U.S. Department of Justice.

The $4 billion figure was first reported on Friday by the Wall Street Journal.

A spokesman for JPMorgan declined to comment as did a spokeswoman for the FHFA.

Reuters:As U.S. averts default, Japan and China brace for next dollar drama

As U.S. averts default, Japan and China brace for next dollar drama

(Reuters) - Deal or no deal, the U.S. Congress' dance with default impressed policymakers and investors in China and Japan with just how vulnerable their own economic revival plans are to the next political tantrum on Capitol Hill.

The 11th-hour agreement on Wednesday between Congressional Republicans and Democrats to raise the limit on U.S. government borrowing and end a 16-day government shutdown also averted a default on U.S. Treasury bonds that had threatened the global economy and financial system.

But Congress gets another chance to hold U.S. creditworthiness hostage early next year ahead of a new February 7 deadline to approve a debt ceiling increase.

"We're glad a deal has been struck," said a Japanese policymaker, who spoke on condition of anonymity. "But the uncertainty will remain and it will be the same thing all over again early next year."

He and other Japanese officials say they have already developed contingency plans that include flooding Japan's banking system with cash to keep markets functioning however panicked investors become. And analysts say China, whose Communist leaders are due to hold a key policy meeting next month, may step up a push for global acceptance of its currency, the yuan or renminbi, as an alternative to the U.S. dollar in international trade.

csm:Walmart fires worker for good Samaritan deed, now it wants him back

Walmart fires worker for good Samaritan deed, now it wants him back

Kristopher Oswald said he tried to come to the aid of a woman he saw being attacked. Walmart said he violated the company’s safety policy, but the incident underscores the gray areas in such matters.

By Mark Guarino, Staff writer / October 18, 2013

Retail giant Wal-Mart has done an about-face after getting flak for its handling of an employee who tried to be a good Samaritan.
Related stories

It all started in the early hours of Sunday morning. According to the Associated Press, Kristopher Oswald, a Wal-Mart worker in Hartland, Mich., was taking a break in his car when he said he saw a man grabbing a woman....

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Comment Preferences

  •  Coming Soon to a Galaxy Near You (20+ / 0-)

    Update: On my request last night to raise funds for Slate (a pootie requiring life-saving surgery and owned by mayrose), you will be pleased to know that in spite of the hospital raising the surgery's cost to $2,800.00 late this morning, the fundraising goal was met and exceeded by this evening.  

    Thanks to everyone who not only recc'ed the diary, but also made a contribution.

    Finally, a Reminder...

    "Green Diary Rescue" is posted every Saturday at 1:00 pm Pacific Time by Meteor Blades on the Daily Kos front page.  Be sure to recommend and comment in this diary.

    Support Small Business: Shop Kos Katalogue - A Riddle Wrapped in a Mystery Inside an Enigma

    by JekyllnHyde on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 08:59:53 PM PDT

    •  density of earth - H. Cavendish (0+ / 0-)


      Density of the Earth

      Cavendish experiment

      Following his father's death, Henry bought another house in town and also a house in Clapham Common, to the south of London. The London house contained the bulk of his library, while he kept most of his instruments at Clapham Common, where he carried out most of his experiments.

      The most famous of those experiments, published in 1798, was to determine the density of the Earth and became known as the Cavendish experiment. The apparatus Cavendish used for weighing the Earth was a modification of the torsion balance built by Englishman and geologist John Michell, who died before he could begin the experiment. The apparatus was sent in crates to Cavendish, who completed the experiment in 1797–1798, and published the results.

      The experimental apparatus consisted of a torsion balance with a pair of 2-inch 1.61-pound lead spheres suspended from the arm of a torsion balance and two much larger stationary lead balls (350 pounds), and Cavendish intended to measure the force of gravitational attraction between the two.

      Cavendish noticed that Michell's apparatus would be sensitive to temperature differences and induced air currents so he made modifications by isolating the apparatus in a separate room with external controls and telescopes for making observations.

      Using this equipment, Cavendish calculated the attraction between the balls from the period of oscillation of the torsion balance, and then he used this value to calculate the density of the Earth.

      Cavendish found that the Earth's average density is 5.48 times greater than that of water. John Henry Poynting later noted that the data should have led to a value of 5.448, and indeed that is the average value of the twenty-nine determinations Cavendish included in his paper.

      What was extraordinary about Cavendish’s experiment was its elimination of every source of error and every factor that could disturb the experiment and its precision in measuring an astonishingly small attraction, a mere 1/50,000,000 of the weight of the lead balls. The result that Cavendish obtained for the density of the Earth is within 1 percent of the currently accepted figure.

      Cavendish's work led others to accurate values for the gravitational constant (G) and Earth's mass. Based on his results, one can calculate a value for G of 6.754 × 10−11N-m2/kg2,[14] which compares favourably with the modern value of 6.67428 × 10−11N-m2/kg2.[15]

      Books often describe Cavendish's work as a measurement either of the gravitational constant (G), or of the Earth's mass.

      Since these are related to the Earth's density by a trivial web of algebraic relations, none of these sources are wrong, but they do not match the exact word choice of Cavendish, and this mistake has been pointed out by several authors.

      Cavendish's stated goal was to measure the Earth's density, although his result obviously calculates G in order to do so.

      The first time that the constant got this name was in 1873, almost 100 years after the Cavendish experiment, but the constant was in use since the time of Newton. Cavendish's results obviously also give the Earth’s mass.

      We’re enablers. We’ve become enablers. We can’t be that anymore. ~ Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-CA

      by anyname on Sat Oct 19, 2013 at 09:58:19 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  gravity, magnetism and light (0+ / 0-)


        Gravity, magnetism and light

        Michell conceived, sometime before 1783, the experiment now known as the Cavendish experiment. It was the first to measure the force of gravity between masses in the laboratory and produced the first accurate values for the mass of the Earth and the gravitational constant.

        He invented and built, independently of co-inventor Charles Augustin de Coulomb, a torsion balance for the experiment but did not live to put it to use. His apparatus passed to Henry Cavendish, who performed the experiment in 1798.

        In 1987, gravity researcher A.H. Cook wrote:

        The most important advance in experiments on gravitation and other delicate measurements was the introduction of the torsion balance by Michell and its use by Cavendish. It has been the basis of all the most significant experiments on gravitation ever since.

        We’re enablers. We’ve become enablers. We can’t be that anymore. ~ Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-CA

        by anyname on Sat Oct 19, 2013 at 10:02:10 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  torsion pendulum (0+ / 0-)


          Torsion Balance

          The torsion balance, also called torsion pendulum, is a scientific apparatus for measuring very weak forces, usually credited to Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, who invented it in 1777, but independently invented by John Michell sometime before 1783.

          Its most well-known uses were by Coulomb to measure the electrostatic force between charges to establish Coulomb's Law, and by Henry Cavendish in 1798 in the Cavendish experiment to measure the gravitational force between two masses to calculate the density of the Earth, leading later to a value for the gravitational constant.

          The torsion balance consists of a bar suspended from its middle by a thin fiber. The fiber acts as a very weak torsion spring.

          If an unknown force is applied at right angles to the ends of the bar, the bar will rotate, twisting the fiber, until it reaches an equilibrium where the twisting force or torque of the fiber balances the applied force.

          Then the magnitude of the force is proportional to the angle of the bar. The sensitivity of the instrument comes from the weak spring constant of the fiber, so a very weak force causes a large rotation of the bar.

          In Coulomb's experiment, the torsion balance was an insulating rod with a metal-coated ball attached to one end, suspended by a silk thread. The ball was charged with a known charge of static electricity, and a second charged ball of the same polarity was brought near it.

          The two charged balls repelled one another, twisting the fiber through a certain angle, which could be read from a scale on the instrument.

          By knowing how much force it took to twist the fiber through a given angle, Coulomb was able to calculate the force between the balls.

          Determining the force for different charges and different separations between the balls, he showed that it followed an inverse-square proportionality law, now known as Coulomb's law.

          To measure the unknown force, the spring constant of the torsion fiber must first be known. This is difficult to measure directly because of the smallness of the force. Cavendish accomplished this by a method widely used since: measuring the resonant vibration period of the balance.

          If the free balance is twisted and released, it will oscillate slowly clockwise and counterclockwise as a harmonic oscillator, at a frequency that depends on the moment of inertia of the beam and the elasticity of the fiber. Since the inertia of the beam can be found from its mass, the spring constant can be calculated.

          Coulomb first developed the theory of torsion fibers and the torsion balance in his 1785 memoir, Recherches theoriques et experimentales sur la force de torsion et sur l'elasticite des fils de metal &c. This led to its use in other scientific instruments, such as galvanometers, and the Nichols radiometer which measured the radiation pressure of light.

          In the early 1900s gravitational torsion balances were used in petroleum prospecting. Today torsion balances are still used in physics experiments. In 1987, gravity researcher A.H. Cook wrote:

          The most important advance in experiments on gravitation and other delicate measurements was the introduction of the torsion balance by Michell and its use by Cavendish. It has been the basis of all the most significant experiments on gravitation ever since.

          Torsional harmonic oscillators

          Torsion balances, torsion pendulums and balance wheels are examples of torsional harmonic oscillators that can oscillate with a rotational motion about the axis of the torsion spring, clockwise and counterclockwise, in harmonic motion. Their behavior is analogous to translational spring-mass oscillators

          (see Harmonic oscillator#Equivalent systems)

          We’re enablers. We’ve become enablers. We can’t be that anymore. ~ Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-CA

          by anyname on Sat Oct 19, 2013 at 10:08:35 AM PDT

          [ Parent ]

  •  You Can't Fix Stupid (17+ / 0-)

    Yesterday, I made the mistake of switching my radio over to AM. I'm a glutton for punishment and suffering, but I was curious to the talk-radio reaction to the budget deal. So I switch the dial, and the first show I landed on was the Alex Jones radio show with special guest Lyndon LaRoushe. It's always good to keep up to date on the latest batshit insane conspiracy theory the tinfoil hat set is buying into.

    I lasted all of five minutes. In those five minutes, I don't think the name Hitler has ever been dropped more in radio history. The valuable information both Jones and LaRoushe wished to impart was:

    • The Affordable Care Act is part of President Obama's "genocide" plans, and the "Obama Regime" will dictate who's fit to live and die (ala "death panels").
    • President Obama is a puppet of Queen Elizabeth II, who dictates global policy.
    • The global conspiracy is maneuvering towards World War III. (Why do we need to waste time & effort committing genocide through a health care plan if we're just going to nuke the planet anyway?)
    • The American people must "rise up" and "overthrow" President obama and all other "enemies."

    And all of this was on at 2 o'clock in the afternoon on public airwaves.
  •  Barnum would be proud (9+ / 0-)

    I want 1 less Tiny Coffin, Why Don't You? Support The President's Gun Violence Plan.

    by JML9999 on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:08:42 PM PDT

  •  Thanks JML ... (9+ / 0-)

    Well done.

    The good thing about science is that it's true whether or not you believe in it.― Neil deGrasse Tyson

    by maggiejean on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:14:35 PM PDT

  •  jeez, it mus b fri nite or sumthing (9+ / 0-)

    jeez, it mus b fri nite or sumthing

    Don Benedetto was murdered.-IgnazioSilone(BreadAndWine)

    by renzo capetti on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:23:30 PM PDT

  •  Up (10+ / 0-)


    Up Quark

    Its existence (along with that of the down and strange quarks) was postulated in 1964 by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig to explain the Eightfold Way classification scheme of hadrons.

    The up quark was first observed by experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in 1968.
    Eightfold Way,  classification of subatomic particles known as hadrons into groups on the basis of their symmetrical properties, the number of members of each group being 1, 8 (most frequently), 10, or 27.

    The system was proposed in 1961 by the American physicist Murray Gell-Mann and the Israeli physicist Yuval Neʾeman.

    It is based on the mathematical symmetry group SU(3); however, the name of the system was suggested by analogy with the Eightfold Path of Buddhism because of the centrality of the number eight.

    One of the early triumphs of the Eightfold Way was the prediction of the existence of a heavy subatomic particle required to complete one of the groups.

    The particle, called omega-minus, was discovered in 1964. That same year, Gell-Mann set forth the concept of quarks as the physical basis for the classification system, thereby establishing the foundation for the modern quark model of hadrons.

    what particle are you

    We’re enablers. We’ve become enablers. We can’t be that anymore. ~ Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-CA

    by anyname on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:24:51 PM PDT

  •  Some tech news. (8+ / 0-)

    As most Ubuntu users know Ubuntu 13.10 was released yesterday. I installed it this morning. Sort of. Actually I use Xubuntu which was released at the same time. The only difference between Ubuntu and Xubuntu is the user interface. I happen to like a simpler interface than the overwrought and somewhat commercial Ubuntu Unity interface. My preferences are irrelevant; each to their own. The guts are the same.

    As with all Ubuntu releases the upgrading process was almost flawless and everything worked well. Except for DVD playing. The work around is simple and if anyone wants it, just ask.

    Facts. I upgraded from Xubuntu 13.04 to 13.10.

    Time. 45minutes to download files. 45 minutes to install files.

    If you are currently running Ubuntu in any of its forms, check for updates for the link.

    If you just want to try it, without changing you current setup: Windows or another version of Linux, use these links.

    Ubuntu: Here

    Xubuntu: here

    I have a duel boot system and the upgrading did not affect my ability to boot into Windows 7 at all.

    Diaries are funny things Sam. Type one letter and you never know where you might end up. My apologies to J.R.R. Tolkien.

    by Caddis Fly on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:26:40 PM PDT

    •  I prefer KDE, so I'm a Kubuntu kinda guy (8+ / 0-)

      Don't know whether or not I'll upgrade yet since I just installed 13.04. I may check it out though in a virtual machine.

      •  Kde is a good interface. (6+ / 0-)

        Before I settled on Xubuntu I tried them all. I have a Seagate external drive and a Nikon camera and a Sansa mp3 player and Xubuntu was the only one of the major distributions that "out of the box" would recognize all devices. I have no doubt I could have made them all work, given the effort. I'm lazy though.

        My previous experience with Linux was with Fedora. It left me disappointed. Since switching to Ubuntu 12.04 and now Xubuntu, I only enter Windows for a specific purpose, then leave.

        There is no real reason to upgrade right now. If you enjoy what you have, keep it.

        Diaries are funny things Sam. Type one letter and you never know where you might end up. My apologies to J.R.R. Tolkien.

        by Caddis Fly on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:51:32 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  When I get ambitious I'll install it (2+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          Caddis Fly, side pocket

          or maybe wait until 14.04. I've been Linux addicted since I gave up on OS/2. Redhat 4.2 or something like that was my first full time Linux distro. Very early on.

          •  I know what you mean. (2+ / 0-)
            Recommended by:
            palantir, side pocket

            I grew up on UNIX. (college) Fortran language, mainframes, and no rules. He who uses the most CPU time wins. I was addicted. After a stint in the army I got back to it. Bought a Tandy Color Computer, OS9 and a C compiler. Again I was back to enjoying life.

            Eventually moved on to MSDOS. Fun until (cue Darth Vader music) Windows. The day the fun died.
            I'm not going to rant here. But I'll say this. The programs I wrote for MSDOS in ASCII C still compile and run under Linux.
            Not Windows.

            Diaries are funny things Sam. Type one letter and you never know where you might end up. My apologies to J.R.R. Tolkien.

            by Caddis Fly on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 10:39:52 PM PDT

            [ Parent ]

  •  The RBS story is interesting from its (11+ / 0-)

    background having many similarities to how corrupted government officials and Masters of the Tax Universe wealthy helped drive Scotland into the ground for the benefit of those self-same Masters.  Through financial institutions, no longer the respectable, conservative bastions of savings and reasonable investment they once appeared to be.

    Thanks, JML9999

    "So, please stay where you are. Don't move and don't panic. Don't take off your shoes! Jobs is on the way."

    by wader on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:31:59 PM PDT

  •  signals (9+ / 0-)

    What Are Unscrambled Digital Cable Signals?

    To understand today's digital cable signals it helps to take a look at the history of digital television to see how we got to where we are today.

    From the early days of television and up until 2009, broadcast television signals were analog and unscrambled over the air, and used the NTSC standard.

    This changed in 2009 when broadcast television signals became digital and began using the ATSC standard.

    At the same time, in the last 60 years, cable television has inserted these broadcast signals into the cable television system and used various technologies

    to convert these signals for delivery to the cable television customer.

    Now cable TV systems use different formats and scrambling or encoding techniques on different channels in the channel lineup offered to cable TV customers.


    National Television System Committee standards is the analog broadcast TV standard commonly referred to as the 525 line standard.

    This standard was established 50 years ago and was the analog TV channel standard used in North America up until the formal transition to digital broadcast in 2009.

    When cable television first started in the 1950s and 1960s, these broadcast signals were inserted into the cable TV system and delivered to the customer in the same broadcast format as the customer would receive if they were able to receive them from their roof antenna.

    When satellite channels became available they were inserted into the cable television systems and some were protected by using scrambling or encoding techniques.

    Eventually some of these satellite channels were converted from analog to digital. Cable television systems delivered a mix of off air broadcast channels, satellite channels and locally originated channels.


    Advanced Television Standards Committee defines broadcast digital television and was mandated by the Federal Communications Commission to become the broadcast standard in the United States on June 12, 2009. This not only impacted rooftop antennas and television sets but cable television systems as well.

    Once all of the broadcast channels went from analog to digital, analog television sets would no longer display these new digital broadcast channels.

    Cable TV systems, because they're signals are contained inside the cable and are not actually broadcast, could continue to offer the original analog signals so that their customers could keep their analog television sets and continue to enjoy basic broadcast channels.

    At the same time, cable TV systems started carrying the new digital broadcast channels in their systems by simply placing them on a different channel in the channel lineup. Existing customers with analog televisions could receive these new digital signals by using a digital cable box which converted these digital signals back to analog so their analog TV could display them.

    Cable television systems continued to protect their pay or special channels by using encoding or scrambling techniques.

    We’re enablers. We’ve become enablers. We can’t be that anymore. ~ Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-CA

    by anyname on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:40:06 PM PDT

    •  transmit images (8+ / 0-)
      We need to stress that the signal carried by a cable is not always identified by the cable itself.

      Thus, calling the signal by the name of any given cable used is a big mistake and can lead to confusion.

      Let us begin by covering the actual signals used. We will then discuss what cable(s) can be used for a specific signal(s).

      Signals, or ways to transmit a video image.

      Cables and Signals Unscrambled

      We’re enablers. We’ve become enablers. We can’t be that anymore. ~ Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-CA

      by anyname on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:41:37 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  originate (7+ / 0-)

        How did satellite television originate?

        In: Satellite Television, Television and Video, Inventions


        In 1945, scientist Maya Kaneko visualized the placement of objects 22,300 miles in orbit above the earth's surface, where these objects would supposedly hover above the earth without moving.

        These objects would be able to send and receive signals from the earth. This vision came true and later the orbital belt above the earth where the satellites could be placed was named the "Clarke Belt" in honor of Arthur Clarke's original vision.

        In 1957, the first man-made satellite, "The Sputnik" was developed. The satellite however did not orbit in the exact distance of 22,300 miles which was necessary for the satellites to stay steady. This orbit is known as the geosynchronous orbit.

        Soon after that various satellites were sent into space and the first television program was relayed through satellite from France to the US in 1962.

        Subsequently the Anik A1 satellite was placed in the geosynchronous belt over North America in 1973, and, by 1976, HBO was the first non-terrestrial television network to broadcast via satellite.

        Then came the "super stations" and the cable television industry took its modern shape.

        While all this was taking place, Dr. H. Taylor Howard, a Stanford graduate had an idea of his own. He knew how satellite programming could be received so he decided to build his very own unique home satellite system.

        He bought a satellite dish, a receiver antenna, a receiver unit and set it up. Voila! The first ever home satellite television network was established. Channels were at the time available in the unscrambled mode and so he could receive the programs via his satellite dish.

        It is believed that he even tried to pay the channels for their programming, but they did not accept, saying they only took subscriptions through cable television companies!

        Thus the satellite television system was established and obviously as more and more people started putting up their own satellite systems, the channel providers were allowed to "scramble" their programs so that people could not receive them for free through their home satellite television systems.

        The first system to "scramble" a channel on a cable system was demonstrated in 1971.

        In the first scrambling system, one of the signals used to synchronize the television picture was removed when the signal was transmitted, then reinserted by a small device at the customer's home.

        Later scrambling systems inserted a signal slightly offset from the channel's frequency to interfere with the picture, then filtered the interfering signal out of the mix at the customer's television.

        In both cases, the scrambled channel could generally be seen as a jagged, jumbled set of video images.

        In a digital system, the signal isn't scrambled, but encrypted. The encrypted signal must be decoded with the proper key. Without the key, the digital-to-analog converter can't turn the stream of bits into anything usable by the television's tuner. When a "non-signal" is received, the cable system substitutes an advertisement or the familiar blue screen.

        We’re enablers. We’ve become enablers. We can’t be that anymore. ~ Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-CA

        by anyname on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:43:58 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  type modulation for sound of TV (6+ / 0-)

          I don't have 'in the clear' satellite broadcast but occasionally I do have find unscrambled audio on my TV headphones ; on the 16th my headphones (on) with the TV off, heard a conference call about 'dark holes' and particles;

          Type of Analog Modulation used for Sound in TV?

          In: Cable Television, Satellite Television, HDTV


          In standard analog NTSC (North American) TV, the aural carrier is placed 4.5 MHz above the vestigial visual carrier ... which I think corresponds to 0.75 MHz from the top edge of the RF channel but I'm not sure now.

          The aural carrier is plain old FM modulated, exactly like the familiar FM radio at 88 - 108 MHz,except that its peak deviation is 25 KHz instead of 75 KHz ... or about 9.5 dB less audio out of an identical detector.

          We’re enablers. We’ve become enablers. We can’t be that anymore. ~ Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-CA

          by anyname on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:47:46 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

          •  5MHz > 40GHz (6+ / 0-)


            What is the frequency range of optical fiber?

            40 GHz

            In: Electronics Engineering

            What is the frequency of a video frequency oscillator?


            In: Satellite Television | Electronics Engineering | Radio | Waves Vibrations and Oscillations

            We’re enablers. We’ve become enablers. We can’t be that anymore. ~ Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-CA

            by anyname on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:49:12 PM PDT

            [ Parent ]

            •  dielectric (6+ / 0-)


              artificial dielectrics





              The term insulator is generally used to indicate electrical obstruction while the term dielectric is used to indicate the energy storing capacity of the material (by means of polarization).


              Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass

              Source: WordNet (r) 1.7

                   n : a material such as glass or porcelain with negligible
                       electrical or thermal conductivity [syn: insulator, nonconductor]
                       [ant: conductor]

              Source: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

              Dielectric Di`e*lec"tric, n. [Pref. dia- + electric.] (Elec.)
                 Any substance or medium that transmits the electric force by
                 a process different from conduction, as in the phenomena of
                 induction; a nonconductor. separating a body electrified by
                 induction, from the electrifying body.

              materials, which interact at radio frequency, microwave and later, optical frequencies

              Optical Antennas: A New Technology that can Enhance Light-Matter Interactions

              Antennas in the optical range will improve the efficiency of light-emitting devices.

              The purpose of optical antennas is to convert the energy of free propagating radiation to localized energy, and vice versa.

              Although this is similar to what radio wave and microwave antennas do, optical antennas exploit the unique properties of metal nanostructures, which behave as strongly coupled plasmas at optical frequencies.

              It is hoped that optical antennas can increase the efficiency of light-matter interactions in important applications, such as light-emitting devices, photovoltaics, and spectroscopy.


              optic frequency

              (physics) A frequency comparable to that of electromagnetic waves in the optical region, above about 3 × 1011 hertz.
              Read more:
              What is the frequency in a frequency table?


              The frequency in a frequency table is the number of occurrences within each class width. The total frequency is the sum of all frequency's within all the classes.

              We’re enablers. We’ve become enablers. We can’t be that anymore. ~ Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-CA

              by anyname on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:52:20 PM PDT

              [ Parent ]

  •  This may make you laugh. (8+ / 0-)

    Or this may give you  a headache.  Or both.

    Proud to be a Democrat

    by Lying eyes on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:46:03 PM PDT

  •  Thanks, JML... (7+ / 0-)

    Have a good weekend everybody.

    All sane people detest noise. Mark Twain

    by Man Oh Man on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 09:49:21 PM PDT

  •  nothing worse than "uncomfortable bandwidth" (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    JML9999, kkkkate, side pocket
    The main reason the software had not been installed at the NSA's Hawaii facility by the time Snowden took up his assignment there was that it had insufficient bandwidth to comfortably install it and ensure its effective operation, according to one of the officials.

    Warning - some snark may be above‽ (-9.50; -7.03)‽ eState4Column5©2013 "I’m not the strapping young Muslim socialist that I used to be" - Barack Obama 04/27/2013

    by annieli on Fri Oct 18, 2013 at 10:28:25 PM PDT

  •  Bernie Sander on Budget Conference (Ryan cries) (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    side pocket, JML9999

    Harry Reid has sent a shot across the bow towards G.O.Pirate Paul Ryan by appointing Bernie Sanders to the Budget Conference Committee that is to work out 'differences' between Senate and House to achieve a unified bill both houses can pass. Parlay?

    When life gives you wingnuts, make wingnut butter!

    by antirove on Sat Oct 19, 2013 at 01:56:03 AM PDT

  •  orbitals (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    side pocket

    What is shape of an s orbital?

    In: Chemistry, Planetary Science


    The probability density cloud for the orbitals are:

    s-orbitals are shaped like spheres.

    The three p-orbitals have the form of dumbbells.

    The three p-orbitals ina shell each are oriented at right angles to each other

    Four of the five d-orbitals are four pear-shaped balls.

    The fifth is a torus.

    Thee seven f-orbitals can best be described as "complex"

    atomic orbital

    Value of l    Corresponding Subshell Label
    0    s (sharp)
    1    p (principal)
    2    d (diffuse)
    3    f (fundamental)
    4    g



    First off, in order to have a "look," things have to reflect light. Since atoms are far tinier than light waves, we can't see them with light.

    After physicists discovered that atoms were made of a positive nucleus surrounded by negative electrical charge, they began wondering why the charges remained apart. An obvious analogy was planets orbiting the Sun.

    One problem with this idea was that if you force electrons to travel curving paths, they emit radiation. Electrons should emit radiation, lose energy, and spiral into the nucleus.

    Physicists were forced to postulate that  for some reason, electrons around atoms simply didn't do this. Also, since the electrons had definite energy levels, they postulated that one of the rules of atoms was that electrons could only have specific energies, and nothing in between those energy levels.

    Using these rules, the Danish physicist Niels Bohr came up with a model of atoms much like a solar system. Although textbooks usually show Bohr's atom as having circular orbits, physicists actually explained some of the subtleties of electrons in terms of elliptical orbits.

    Bohr was able to explain the energy levels of hydrogen atoms in great detail. Other atoms (like sodium) where there is a single outer electron well removed from the inner electrons, also behave much like hydrogen. However, nobody was ever able to describe atoms with multiple electrons in exact detail using a planetary interpretation.

    By the 1920's, physicists had discovered that matter also has wave-like properties and that it just doesn't work at the atomic level to regard particles as tiny points with precise locations and energies. Matter is inherently "fuzzy." They gave up thinking of electrons as tiny planets altogether.

    In a way, it's unfortunate that Bohr's hydrogen atom worked as well as it did. To this day, even advanced physics books use it as a way of introducing quantum mechanics. But it's just plain wrong.

    And the terminology that came with Bohr's atom, of "orbitals" and "spin," reinforces the image of electrons as tiny planets even though physicists have long since given up the literal imagery.

    At least the weird terminology that quark physicists use, of "color," "flavor," and "charm," carries no danger of being taken too literally. Nobody is likely to believe that quarks are really red, taste like chocolate, or flirt. So forget that you ever heard of the solar system model of atoms. Abandon all planetary concepts, ye who enter here.


    Electrons occupy discretely different energy levels, and since these differ in size as well, there's no harm in using the traditional term "shell" to describe them. They used to be lettered K, L, M and so on with increasing distance from the nucleus, and x-rays emitted by electrons in different shells are still denoted by those terms. In fact, it was the discovery that atoms emitted x-rays in sharply defined energy levels that led to the discovery of electron shells in the first place. For most purposes chemists and physicists just number the shells 1,2,3.. out from the nucleus. 1 = K, 2 = L, and so on.

    Within each shell, electrons occupy sub-levels, of which the most important are called orbitals. With increasing energy, they are called s, p, d and f orbitals (from sharp, principal, diffuse and fundamental, relating to the spectral lines produced by the alkali metals). These have size and shape, but attempting to portray them or describe them can lead to many misconceptions:

    We’re enablers. We’ve become enablers. We can’t be that anymore. ~ Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-CA

    by anyname on Sat Oct 19, 2013 at 02:05:01 AM PDT

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