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OND Editors  OND is a community feature  on Daily Kos, consisting of news stories from around the world, sometimes coupled with a daily theme, original research or commentary.  Editors of OND impart their own presentation styles and content choices, typically publishing each day near 12:00AM Eastern Time.

OND Editors  consisting of founder Magnifico, regular editors maggiejean, wader, Man Oh Man, side pocket, rfall, and JML9999, alumni editors palantir, Bentliberal, Oke, jlms qkw, Interceptor7, and ScottyUrb, guest editor annetteboardman, and current editor-in-chief Neon Vincent, along with anyone else who reads and comments, informs and entertains you.

BBC:Syria crisis: Geneva peace talks end in recriminations

Syria crisis: Geneva peace talks end in recriminations

The Syrian government and opposition have traded insults after a week-long peace conference in Geneva ended with no firm agreement.

Foreign Minister Walid Muallem said the opposition were immature, while the opposition's Louay Safi said the regime had no desire to stop the bloodshed.

However, UN envoy Lakhdar Brahimi said he had seen some "common ground", and scheduled more talks for 10 February.

The opposition has agreed to take part, but Mr Muallem refused to commit.

BBC:Pervez Musharraf: Pakistan issues new arrest warrant

Pervez Musharraf: Pakistan issues new arrest warrant

A Pakistani court has issued an arrest warrant for ex-military ruler Pervez Musharraf, rejecting his plea to go abroad for medical treatment.

Mr Musharraf has been in hospital ever since suffering chest pains on the way to his treason trial on 2 January.

Prosecutors argued his medical condition was not serious enough for him to avoid appearing before judges

Mr Musharraf says all the accusations against him are politically motivated.

BBC:Brazil police arrest Amazon tribesmen for murder

Brazil police arrest Amazon tribesmen for murder

Police in Brazil's Amazon region have arrested five indigenous members of the Tenharim tribe accused of killing three contractors who have been missing since mid-December.

The tribe denies any involvement in the disappearance of the three men.

Local groups accused tribe members of killing the three government workers in retaliation for the death of an indigenous leader.

The incident led to riots in the nearby city of Humaita.

BBC:South Sudan: MSF workers 'flee into bush'

South Sudan: MSF workers 'flee into bush'

The medical charity MSF says 240 of its staff have been forced to flee into the bush in South Sudan because of continuing insecurity.

MSF said the workers were among thousands of people trying to escape fighting in Unity State between government forces and rebels.

Violence broke out in the world's newest state on 15 December, starting as fighting between rival army factions

It has now killed thousands of people and displaced around 700,000.

BBC:Stand-off over 'tortured' Ukrainian activist Dmytro Bulatov

Stand-off over 'tortured' Ukrainian activist Dmytro Bulatov

Medical workers have blocked police from questioning a Ukrainian protester who says he was abducted and tortured.

Dmytro Bulatov, who went missing for eight days, is being treated in hospital after claiming he was "crucified" by his captors.

He is on a government wanted list. Opposition activists said officers went to the hospital in Kiev to arrest him.

The police said they had opened an inquiry into his abduction and were trying to question him about that.

BBC:Snowden leaks: Canada 'spied on airport travellers'

Snowden leaks: Canada 'spied on airport travellers'

Canada's electronic spy agency collected data from travellers passing through a major airport, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) reports.

The CSEC collected information captured from unsuspecting passengers' wireless devices by the airport's free wi-fi system over two-weeks, the report says.

The revelations come from documents leaked by Edward Snowden, CBC says.

The CSEC is prohibited by law from targeting Canadians or anyone in Canada without an appropriate warrant.

Reuters:Powder sent to sites near Super Bowl not hazardous: FBI

Powder sent to sites near Super Bowl not hazardous: FBI

(Reuters) - Several suspicious letters that sparked a security scare near the site of this weekend's Super Bowl contained a powdery substance that was not hazardous, the Federal Bureau of Investigation said on Friday.

No injuries were reported at the sites around New Jersey and New York where the letters were received, which included at least two hotels and the offices of former New York mayor Rudolph Giuliani.

Police have been out in force throughout the metropolitan area ahead of the February 2 National Football League championship game. Met Life Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, about 10 miles west of New York City has been on lockdown since Sunday.

At an Econo Lodge hotel in Carlstadt, New Jersey, which had received an envelope containing a loose white powder, hotel general manager Eylem Naik said authorities had tested the powder and pronounced it harmless.

Reuters:Mexican president to seek OK on telecom, oil reform specifics

Mexican president to seek OK on telecom, oil reform specifics

(Reuters) - Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto said on Friday he will send secondary laws that flesh out landmark telecoms and energy reforms for congressional approval as he seeks to boost competition and economic growth.

Pena Nieto pushed a series of reforms through Congress last year, which also spanned taxes and education, but the implementation of energy and telecoms reforms requires a separate batch of secondary laws.

He held off fast-tracking the reforms. The move would have risked angering conservative and left-leaning rivals who helped him push reforms through a divided Congress.

"During the first days of February, I will send to Congress ... secondary laws regarding telecommunications, economic competition and energy," Pena Nieto said, signing into law an electoral reform that allows for the re-election of lawmakers.

Reuters:Kerry asks Russia to pressure Syria on faster chemical arms removal

Kerry asks Russia to pressure Syria on faster chemical arms removal

(Reuters) - U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry asked Russia's foreign minister on Friday to put pressure on the Syrian government to accelerate the removal of chemical weapons, which Kerry said is not happening quickly enough.

Kerry met Russia's Sergei Lavrov on the sidelines of the Munich Security Conference to discuss what Washington considered to be "unacceptable" progress in moving Syrian chemical weapons, said a senior U.S. State Department official who spoke on condition of anonymity.

"Secretary Kerry pressed Foreign Minister Lavrov to push the regime for more progress on moving the remaining chemical weapons within Syria to the port in Latakia," the official said.

Reuters reported this week that Syria has given up less than 5 percent of its chemical weapons arsenal of roughly 1,300 tonnes of toxic agents and will miss next week's deadline to send all toxic agents abroad for destruction.

Reuters:Fed draws criticism from abroad as emerging markets still reeling

Fed draws criticism from abroad as emerging markets still reeling

(Reuters) - The Federal Reserve's decision to keep trimming its economic stimulus drew fire on Friday as India's central bank chief said Americans should be more attuned to the global impact of their policies, and the IMF called for vigilance given strains in financial markets.

The push-back came on Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke's last day on the job and two days after the U.S. central bank reduced the pace of its huge asset purchase program. The Fed made the move on Wednesday despite a bruising selloff in emerging markets that was prompted in part by the prospect of less U.S. monetary support.

With the turmoil in currencies and stocks spreading into more emerging markets on Friday, Fed officials, addressing the rout for the first time, offered no hint the sell-off would influence their policy stance unless the U.S. economy were threatened.

But in Mumbai, Reserve Bank of India Governor Raghuram Rajan said the United States "should worry about the effects of its policies on the rest of the world."

Reuters:Daiichi Sankyo pledges bold action on Ranbaxy production problems

Daiichi Sankyo pledges bold action on Ranbaxy production problems

(Reuters) - Japan's Daiichi Sankyo Co Ltd said it would step up support of Indian drugmaking arm Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd and send personnel to help resolve problems at a factory that U.S. regulators have banned from supplying pharmaceutical ingredients.

"We have already put a lot of effort into our support but that has not been enough," Manabu Sakai, senior executive officer at Daiichi Sankyo, told an earnings briefing on Friday.

"We want to go back and prepare a more aggressive, more drastic response."

Sakai said it was inevitable the incident would affect Daiichi Sankyo's earnings but was unable to give concrete numbers. The company is not thinking about reducing its stake in Ranbaxy, he added, although financial support would be among the actions it will look at.

Reuters:Exclusive: South Sudan rebel leader says government derailing peace talks

Exclusive: South Sudan rebel leader says government derailing peace talks

(Reuters) - South Sudan rebel leader Riek Machar accused the government on Friday of ethnic cleansing and trying to sabotage peace talks, in his first face-to-face interview since fighting erupted late last year in Africa's youngest nation.

Dressed in dark green military fatigues and speaking to Reuters in his bush hideout, Machar branded President Salva Kiir a discredited leader who had lost the people's trust and should resign.

Thousands have been killed and more than half a million have fled their homes since fighting erupted in the capital Juba in mid-December and spread quickly across the oil-producing nation, often following ethnic lines.

The two sides signed a ceasefire on January 23 in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, but each has accused the other of breaking it.

WSJ:Microsoft's Likely CEO Pick: From India to Insider

Microsoft's Likely CEO Pick: From India to Insider

 Satya Nadella recalls asking Steve Ballmer in a management performance review how he stacked up against "greats" from Microsoft Corp.'s MSFT +2.66% past. The chief executive called the question "nonsense," because it didn't focus on the future of the company.

The moment transformed Mr. Nadella's thinking. "What drives me every morning and what keeps me up every night is one thing: this business is not about longevity, it's about relevance," Mr. Nadella said in an interview in October.

It is also a window into the 46-year-old Indian immigrant and consummate Microsoft insider who appears on the brink of being chosen to pilot the tech giant as it seeks to reverse years of waning influence.

Mr. Nadella is currently in contract negotiations to succeed Mr. Ballmer as chief executive, a person familiar with the situation said. Microsoft's board is scheduled to meet early next week to approve Mr. Nadella's contract, this person said. It may also weigh whether to choose a new board chair if co-founder and current chair Bill Gates spends more time as an adviser to Mr. Nadella, a request Mr. Nadella made during his contract negotiations.

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Comment Preferences

  •  Lex Luthor And Alfred Pennyworth (11+ / 0-)

    Most of last year, there were rumors circulating about the actors being considered for Lex Luthor in the sequel to Man of Steel. A good many of those rumors were centered around Bryan Cranston, as well as Joaquin Phoenix.

    Today, Warner Bros. announced that Jesse Eisenberg will be Superman archnemesis Lex Luthor, and Jeremy Irons will portray Alfred Pennyworth to Ben Affleck's Bruce Wayne/Batman in Zack Snyder's Batman vs. Superman.

    From the Warner Bros. press release:

    Snyder stated, “Lex Luthor is often considered the most notorious of Superman’s rivals, his unsavory reputation preceding him since 1940. What’s great about Lex is that he exists beyond the confines of the stereotypical nefarious villain. He’s a complicated and sophisticated character whose intellect, wealth and prominence position him as one of the few mortals able to challenge the incredible might of Superman. Having Jesse in the role allows us to explore that interesting dynamic, and also take the character in some new and unexpected directions.”

    The director added, “As everyone knows, Alfred is Bruce Wayne’s most trusted friend, ally and mentor, a noble guardian and father figure. He is an absolutely critical element in the intricate infrastructure that allows Bruce Wayne to transform himself into Batman. It is an honor to have such an amazingly seasoned and gifted actor as Jeremy taking on the important role of the man who mentors and guides the guarded and nearly impervious façade that encapsulates Bruce Wayne.”

    If nothing else, you can give Zack Snyder this; he's taking chances in casting this movie. A lot of the fanboys howled when Ben Affleck was cast as Batman, there were a lot of comments (some rather sexist) when Gal Gadot was cast as Wonder Woman, and there's a bit of an ambivalent reaction to the news about Eisenberg.

    Although, you can see what he's going for in making Eisenberg into Luthor. Instead of Lex being an old, corporate industrialist in a three-piece suit, Snyder is updating the character into probably a Mark Zuckerberg-esque CEO with delusions of grandeur.

  •  If that last news item had run in the NY Post... (12+ / 0-)

    the headline would've been: "From India to Indiansider."


  •  Thank you, JML9999... (9+ / 0-)

    Have a good weekend everybody.

    All sane people detest noise. Mark Twain

    by Man Oh Man on Fri Jan 31, 2014 at 09:10:16 PM PST

  •  The Greatest Story Science Has Ever Told (11+ / 0-)

    From io9: New Cosmos trailer shows how Carl Sagan's series got upgraded

    Neil deGrasse Tyson has picked up where Carl Sagan ended, and his newly rebooted Cosmos series look pretty astounding, as you can see in this trailer with the first actual footage.

    We are exceptionally excited for the 13-episode series titled Cosmos: A Space Time Odyssey, produced by Seth MacFarlane and Sagan's original 1980s collaborators — a whole team of scientists and writers including astronomer Steven Soter and author Ann Druyan. This could be the feel-good science TV series we've been missing. But most importantly, it looks good — real good.

    Cosmos: A Space Time Odyssey will premiere on March 9th.

  •  Thanks JML9999 (10+ / 0-)

    Good choices and much appreciated.

    The good thing about science is that it's true whether or not you believe in it.― Neil deGrasse Tyson

    by maggiejean on Fri Jan 31, 2014 at 09:13:11 PM PST

  •  brain (10+ / 0-)

    Magnetic forces and the brain

    D.R. Hill and M.A. Persinger at Laurentian University have conducted related research with magnetic fields instead of sound waves. Electromagnetic forces are a “wave-like” phenomena. The results were similar to tests with DMT (n,n-dimethyltryptamine), a powerful endogenous psychedelic that is secreted from the pineal organ – the crown, the supposed seat of the soul – in psychoactive amounts at birth, death, and periods of incredible stress).

    The subjects in both cases experienced visions of hyperdimensional but mundane neighboring realities, washes of intense anxiety, and the feeling or seeing of nonhuman sentient entities were common to both. Their resultant hypothesis was that these fields were actually triggering a release of DMT by the brain by simulating (or inducing) the correlated brain activity.

    Hill and Persinger note,"The experiences are enhanced if the strength of the fields over the right hemisphere are about 10% greater than the fields over the left hemisphere and if the complex structure of the applied field contains a variety of intrinsic temporal patterns. They include burst-firing configurations containing a frequency-modulated or phase-modulated component."

    In other words, these doctors were using offset waves that met and created complex interference patterns at the center of the brain (where the pineal organ is located) –bypassing the auditory pathways altogether to stimulate synchronized neural activity.

    Their results were more stunning if they made “music” with the magnets; in compositional terms, “a variety of intrinsic temporal patterns” means “polyrhythm and harmony.”

    Frequency and phase modulations created standing waves just like sonic neuro-entrainment technology; and there it is: an exceedingly clear relationship between electromagnetic vibration, brain activity, and chemical correlates to consciousness.

    brainwave entrainment

    Nancy Pelosi said her GOP colleagues regularly talk disrespectfully about large categories of people; women and their judgment, immigrants and poor people or people who are out of work "there's a real disdain."

    by anyname on Fri Jan 31, 2014 at 09:25:08 PM PST

    •  anyname (10+ / 0-)

      DMT, now that was a real trip.

      The subjects in both cases experienced visions of hyperdimensional but mundane neighboring realities, washes of intense anxiety, and the feeling or seeing of nonhuman sentient entities were common to both.
      I took some about 45 years ago & will never forget the visuals & sounds along with the different scents they exuded.
      A single bird splitting into a whole flock as it/they flew by my perch which was up in a sculpture on Mount Royal in the sculpture garden in the center of Montreal.
      It was strange that it was so intense & the effects started immediately.
      We smoked a joint laced with DMT crystals. I took a nice big pull on it & when I passed it on (there were four of us) I saw my hand tracking over like an echo. After what seemed to me to be less than 7/10 minutes we all came back to what we perceive as reality.
      I never felt any anxiety, maybe because I was so involved in the wonders I was "exposed" to.

      I`ve heard it called the business man`s high, since one could go out at lunch, have a massive trip & be back to work with no ill effects.

      I`m already against the next war.

      by Knucklehead on Fri Jan 31, 2014 at 10:06:02 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

    •  William Grey Walter (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      JML9999, wader, glitterscale, Aunt Pat


      As a young man Walter was greatly influenced by the work of the famous Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. He visited the lab of Hans Berger, who invented the electroencephalograph, or EEG machine, for measuring electrical activity in the brain. Walter produced his own versions of Berger's machine with improved capabilities, which allowed it to detect a variety of brain wave types ranging from the high speed alpha waves to the slow delta waves observed during sleep.

      In the 1930s Walter made a number of discoveries using his EEG machines at Burden Neurological Institute in Bristol. He was the first to determine by triangulation the surface location of the strongest alpha waves within the occipital lobe (alpha waves originate from the thalamus deep within the brain). Walter demonstrated the use of delta waves to locate brain tumours or lesions responsible for epilepsy. He developed the first brain topography machine based on EEG, using on an array of spiral-scan CRTs connected to high-gain amplifiers.

      During the Second World War he worked on scanning radar technology and guided missiles, which may have influenced his subsequent alpha wave scanning hypothesis of brain activity.

      In the 1960s Walter also went on to discover the contingent negative variation (CNV) effect (or readiness potential) whereby a negative spike of electrical activity appears in the brain half a second prior to a person being consciously aware of movements that he is about to make. Intriguingly, this effect brings into question the very notion of consciousness or free will, and should be considered as part of a person's overall reaction time to events.

      Walter's experiments with stroboscopic light, described in The Living Brain, inspired the development of a Dream Machine by the artist Brion Gysin and technician Ian Sommerville.

      Grey Walter's most famous work was his construction of some of the first electronic autonomous robots. He wanted to prove that rich connections between a small number of brain cells could give rise to very complex behaviors - essentially that the secret of how the brain worked lay in how it was wired up. His first robots, which he used to call Machina speculatrix and named Elmer and Elsie, were constructed between 1948 and 1949 and were often described as tortoises due to their shape and slow rate of movement - and because they 'taught us' about the secrets of organisation and life. The three-wheeled tortoise robots were capable of phototaxis, by which they could find their way to a recharging station when they ran low on battery power.

      In one experiment he placed a light on the "nose" of a tortoise and watched as the robot observed itself in a mirror. "It began flickering," he wrote. "Twittering, and jigging like a clumsy Narcissus." Walter argued that if it were seen in an animal it "might be accepted as evidence of some degree of self-awareness."

      One of the tortoises was modified, (given the pretend scientific name Machina docilis) and had added to its simple single celled "brain" one, then two conditional reflex circuits in which they could be taught simple behaviors similar to Ivan Pavlov's dogs. This tortoise was called CORA. One of these included being hit meant food whilst whistling means food, and when conditioned such a whistle by itself means being hit. When he added another circuit tuned to a whistle of another pitch, this could become whistle means being hit, whistle means food, this would make the animal become "afraid" whenever food was presented. Walter remedied this behaviour by severing the two additional circuits, and the tortoise reverted to being a Machina speculatrix. The conditioned reflex behaviour was later placed into a static desktop model, also known as CORA.

      Later versions of Machina speculatrix were exhibited at the Festival of Britain in 1951. Walter stressed the importance of using purely analogue electronics to simulate brain processes at a time when his contemporaries such as Alan Turing and John von Neumann were all turning towards a view of mental processes in terms of digital computation. His work inspired subsequent generations of robotics researchers such as Rodney Brooks, Hans Moravec and Mark Tilden. Modern incarnations of Walter's turtles may be found in the form of BEAM robotics.

      An original tortoise is on display in London UK in the Science Museum's Making the Modern World gallery. Recently, one was also replicated by Dr. Owen Holland, of the University of the West of England in 1995 - using some of the original parts. An original tortoise as seen at the Festival of Britain is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution.

      Nancy Pelosi said her GOP colleagues regularly talk disrespectfully about large categories of people; women and their judgment, immigrants and poor people or people who are out of work "there's a real disdain."

      by anyname on Sat Feb 01, 2014 at 12:04:34 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  night radar WWII (4+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        JML9999, wader, glitterscale, Aunt Pat


        Tizard Mission introduces Airborne Radar to the U.S.

        The Tizard Mission, officially the British Technical and Scientific Mission, was sent to the United States in the autumn of 1940 for the purpose of providing the US military services with information on the various technical advances being made by Great Britain during the war against Germany.

        Members of the mission planned to brief the armed services on British advances being made in jet engines, rockets, and, most importantly, radar. The mission was headed by Sir Henry Tizard, chairman of the Great Britain's Aeronautical Research Committee and included Dr. E. G. "Taffy" Bowen, Britain's leading expert on airborne radar.

        Tizard Mission brought two pieces of radar technology that were crucial in jump-starting the United States efforts in the future development of airborne radar.

        The first of these was the cavity magnetron. This highly secret device solved the problem of generating high power microwaves. Its disclosure to the academic community in the United States quickly led to the establishment of the government sponsored Radiation Laboratory at MIT.

        The laboratory's personnel were immediately directed to begin development of three important microwave systems: a 10 cm airborne interception radar, a 10 cm gun-laying director, and an electronic navigation system (LORAN).

        The second were examples of latest airborne radars in use by the Royal Navy and the RAF. In November 1040, a Mk IV radar was fitted to a Douglas A-20 at Wright Field and demonstrated to the Army Air Corps, which was so impressed with the system that plans to manufacture an equivalent radar set in the United States were immediately implemented.

        USAAF P-70 night fighter
        SCR-540 1.5m Radar

        American Version of British Mk IV Radar. Manufactured by Western Electric, delivered 1942 for installation in USAAF P-70 (right) and Marine Corps PV-1 (lower right) night fighters. First confirmed combat kill April 19, 1943, 6th NFS, Guadalcanal.


        1.55 cm airborne radar for aircraft interception. Weight: 181 lb including cables and inverter. Operators: 1. Power: 40 amp, 27 volt DC. Antenna: fixed quarter wave dipole with directors on side of fuselage (azimuth receiving): 2 fixed quarter wave rods, one above and one below wing (elevation receiving). Indicators: 3-inch CRT with vertical baseline target pips on left and right (azimuth): 3-inch CRT with horizontal baseline, target pips above and below (elevation).

        USMC PV-1 night fighter of VMF(N)-531 at Vella La Vella, Solomono Is, 13 Jan 1944Research and Development By
        British and Bell Telephone Laboratories

        Nancy Pelosi said her GOP colleagues regularly talk disrespectfully about large categories of people; women and their judgment, immigrants and poor people or people who are out of work "there's a real disdain."

        by anyname on Sat Feb 01, 2014 at 12:12:51 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

        •  Edward George Bowen (4+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          JML9999, wader, glitterscale, Aunt Pat


          He graduated with a First-Class Honours degree in 1930, and continued with postgraduate research on X-rays and the structure of alloys, earning an MSc in 1931.

          He completed his doctorate under Professor E.V. Appleton at King's College London. As part of his research, Bowen spent a large part of 1933 and 1934 working with a cathode-ray direction finder at the Radio Research Station at Slough, and it was there that he was noticed by Robert Watson-Watt and so came to play a part in the early history of radar. In 1935 he was recruited by Watson-Watt to work in the Radar Development Team as a Junior Scientific Officer.

          Ground-based radar

          A Committee for the Scientific Study of Air Defence had been established under the chairmanship of Henry Tizard. Before the first meeting of that committee in early 1935, the Government asked Watson-Watt whether an intense beam of radio waves, a 'death ray', could bring down an aircraft. Watson-Watt reported that a 'death ray' was impracticable, but suggested that radio waves might be used to detect, rather than destroy, enemy aircraft.

          After a successful demonstration in February 1935 of the reflection of radio waves by an aircraft, the development of radar went ahead, and a team of five people including Bowen was set up at Orfordness under the cover of doing ionospheric research. Bowen's job was to assemble a transmitter, managing quickly to raise the pulse-power to over 100 kilowatts.

          The first detection of an aircraft was made on 17 June 1935 at a range of 17 miles. By early 1936 after many improvements, aircraft were being detected at ranges of up to 100 miles. This caused work to be started on a chain of radar stations (Chain Home or CH), initially just covering the approaches to London. The team at Orfordness was enlarged as a result, and in March 1936 a new headquarters was acquired at Bawdsey Manor.

          Bowen, at his own request, was moved on to investigating whether radar could be installed in an aircraft. However Bowen was able to save the day when a demonstration of the new transmitter at Bawdsey Manor failed. Before a disgruntled Sir Hugh Dowding returned to London, Bowen gave him an impromptu demonstration of an experimental radar, built as part of his airborne radar programme, which was detecting the aircraft at ranges of up to 50 miles. After working through the night, Bowen resurrected the old transmitter at Ordfordness for the following day's demonstration; which allowed the Government and RAF to continue with the extension of the chain of coastal stations.

          Airborne radar

          Installing radar in an aircraft was difficult because of the size and weight of the equipment and the aerial. Furthermore the equipment had to operate in a vibrating and cold environment. Over the next few years Bowen and his group solved most of these problems. For example he solved the problem of the power supply in aircraft by using an engine-driven alternator, and he encouraged Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) to produce the first radio-frequency cables with solid polythene insulation.

          Further refinements continued until September 1937, when Bowen gave a dramatic and uninvited demonstration of the application of radar by searching for the British Fleet in the North Sea in poor visibility, detecting three capital ships. Bowen's airborne radar group now had two major projects, one for the detection of ships and the other for interception of aircraft. Bowen also experimented briefly with the use of airborne radar to detect features on the ground, such as towns and coastlines, to aid navigation.

          World War Two

          On the outbreak of World War II Bowen's unit was moved to St Athan. One of the first things that Bowen did there was to try to detect a submarine by radar. By then the cavity magnetron had been improved by John Randall and Dr. Harry Boot, making airborne radar a powerful tool. By December 1940 operational aircraft were detecting submarines at up to 15 miles range. This technology had a major effect on winning the Battle of the Atlantic and eventually enabled forces to be built up by sea for the invasion of Europe.

          In April 1941, RAF Coastal Command was operating anti-submarine patrols with about 110 aircraft fitted with radar. This increased the detection of submarines both day and night. However very few of the attacks were lethal until the introduction in mid-1942 of a powerful searchlight, the Leigh light, that illuminated the submarine. As a result the U-boats had to recharge their batteries in daylight so that they could at least see the aircraft coming. The radar and the Leigh light together cut Allied shipping losses dramatically.

          Developments also continued in air interception, and a radar with a narrow rotating beam and plan-position-indicator was developed and used by the RAF to direct fighters in October 1940. Early versions of airborne radar were fitted to Blenheims, but had limited minimum and maximum range. However in the hands of a skilled crew later versions in 1941 were remarkably effective, and in the heavy night raids of 1941 radar-equipped fighters were the main weapon of air defence. In May 1941 over 100 enemy aircraft were shot down at night using radar, compared with 30 by anti-aircraft guns.

          Centimetric contour mapping radars like H2S greatly improved the accuracy of Allied bombers in the strategic bombing campaign. Centimetric gun-laying radars were much more accurate than the older technology. They made the big-gunned Allied battleships more deadly, and with the newly developed proximity fuse made anti-aircraft guns more dangerous to attacking aircraft. The anti-aircraft batteries, placed along on the German V-1 flying-bomb flight-paths to London, are credited with destroying many of the flying bombs before they reached their target.

          Nancy Pelosi said her GOP colleagues regularly talk disrespectfully about large categories of people; women and their judgment, immigrants and poor people or people who are out of work "there's a real disdain."

          by anyname on Sat Feb 01, 2014 at 12:24:17 AM PST

          [ Parent ]

          •  ether wave propaganda (2+ / 0-)
            Recommended by:
            JML9999, wader

            The Tizard Committee   


            Nancy Pelosi said her GOP colleagues regularly talk disrespectfully about large categories of people; women and their judgment, immigrants and poor people or people who are out of work "there's a real disdain."

            by anyname on Sat Feb 01, 2014 at 12:31:19 AM PST

            [ Parent ]

            •  Biggin Hill UK (2+ / 0-)
              Recommended by:
              JML9999, wader

              Nancy Pelosi said her GOP colleagues regularly talk disrespectfully about large categories of people; women and their judgment, immigrants and poor people or people who are out of work "there's a real disdain."

              by anyname on Sat Feb 01, 2014 at 12:40:46 AM PST

              [ Parent ]

              •  Radio Detection And Ranging (2+ / 0-)
                Recommended by:
                wader, side pocket




                As early as 1886, German physicist Heinrich Hertz showed that radio waves could be reflected from solid objects.

                In 1895, Alexander Popov, a physics instructor at the Imperial Russian Navy school in Kronstadt, developed an apparatus using a coherer tube for detecting distant lightning strikes. The next year, he added a spark-gap transmitter.

                In 1897, while testing this equipment for communicating between two ships in the Baltic Sea, he took note of an interference beat caused by the passage of a third vessel.

                In his report, Popov wrote that this phenomenon might be used for detecting objects, but he did nothing more with this observation.

                Nancy Pelosi said her GOP colleagues regularly talk disrespectfully about large categories of people; women and their judgment, immigrants and poor people or people who are out of work "there's a real disdain."

                by anyname on Sat Feb 01, 2014 at 01:38:29 AM PST

                [ Parent ]

                •  spark gap transmitter (2+ / 0-)
                  Recommended by:
                  wader, side pocket



                  A spark-gap transmitter is a device for generating radio frequency electromagnetic waves using a spark gap.

                  These devices served as the transmitters for most wireless telegraphy systems for the first three decades of radio (1887–1916) and the first demonstrations of practical radio were carried out using them.

                  In later years somewhat more efficient transmitters were developed based on rotary machines like the high-speed Alexanderson alternators and the static Poulsen Arc generators, but spark transmitters were still preferred by most operators.

                  This was because of their uncomplicated design and because the carrier stopped when the telegraph key was released, which allowed the operator to "listen through" for a reply.


                  Nancy Pelosi said her GOP colleagues regularly talk disrespectfully about large categories of people; women and their judgment, immigrants and poor people or people who are out of work "there's a real disdain."

                  by anyname on Sat Feb 01, 2014 at 01:42:24 AM PST

                  [ Parent ]

                  •  leyden jar (2+ / 0-)
                    Recommended by:
                    wader, side pocket



                    A Leyden jar, or Leiden jar, is a device that "stores" static electricity between two electrodes on the inside and outside of a glass jar. It was the original form of a capacitor (originally known as a "condenser").

                    The Ancient Greeks already knew that pieces of amber could attract lightweight particles after being rubbed. The amber becomes electrified by triboelectric effect, mechanical separation of charge in a dielectric. The Greek word for amber is ηλεκτρον ("elektron") and is the origin of the word "electricity".

                    Around 1650, Otto von Guericke built a crude electrostatic generator: a sulphur ball that rotated on a shaft. When Guericke held his hand against the ball and turned the shaft quickly, a static electric charge built up.

                    This experiment inspired the development of several forms of "friction machines", that greatly helped in the study of electricity.

                    The idea for the Leyden jar was discovered independently by two parties: German scientist and jurist Ewald Georg von Kleist, and Dutchmen Pieter van Musschenbroek and Andreas Cunaeus.

                    These scientists developed the Leyden jar while working under a theory of electricity that saw electricity as a fluid, and hoped to develop the jar to "capture" this fluid.

                     In 1744 von Kleist lined a glass jar with silver foil, and charged the foil with a friction machine. Kleist was convinced that a substantial electric charge could be collected when he received a significant shock from the device.

                    The effects of this "Kleistian jar" were independently discovered around the same time by Dutch scientists Pieter van Musschenbroek and Cunaeus at the University of Leiden. Van Musschenbroek communicated on it with the French scientific community where it was called the Leyden jar.

                    Daniel Gralath was the first to combine several jars in parallel into a capacitor "battery" to increase the total possible stored charge.

                    Nancy Pelosi said her GOP colleagues regularly talk disrespectfully about large categories of people; women and their judgment, immigrants and poor people or people who are out of work "there's a real disdain."

                    by anyname on Sat Feb 01, 2014 at 01:49:19 AM PST

                    [ Parent ]

  •  Mystery bug (11+ / 0-)

    As you may have "heard" in the past, I`ve often mentioned "hitch hikers" that come into my reefs in various ways.
    By placing a new coral in a tank, the rock it grows on may have polyps or larvae of a species that might become a crab visible to the eye within months but only discovered a year or more later.
    Tonight I was taking a few images of an Elephant Ear coral that had closed up on some food particles. (I had just fed that tank)
    After I take an image I usually view it in the little screen. I saw a red dot so I took a few more shots.
    Upon downloading the images I found these hitch hikers.
    I`ve never seen these before.

    Mystery Bug 1 DSCN1475
    Note a little red dot in the middle of the coral.

    Here a tight crop.
    The little dot has now become a creature.

    Mystery Bug zoom  DSCN1475

    From another shot

    Two of them.

    Mystery Bug 2 zoom DSCN1477

    Now they`ve gone somewhere.
    I don`t know if they are parasites, if they just happened to be there, if they live in that particular coral nor if they are harmful.
    So now my mission is to find out answers.
    Since I have quite a few of these corals I will start my search in them to see if there are more, (I would imagine many) concluding that they are being hosted by those corals if that is the case, as long as I cannot find them elsewhere.
    As you can see by their size, it`s quite a feat to find them.
    The closed up coral is about the size of a plum.

    Sometimes I see creatures I never knew were in my reefs when I download images & discover a pair of eyes that were watching me all along.

    Where`s Waldo


    A crop from a much larger field of view.
    After realizing this little crab was there & where it lived, I was then able to follow its exploits.


    I`m already against the next war.

    by Knucklehead on Fri Jan 31, 2014 at 09:39:29 PM PST

  •  JML9999 (8+ / 0-)

    Interesting OND this evening.
    Thank You


    I`m already against the next war.

    by Knucklehead on Fri Jan 31, 2014 at 10:23:32 PM PST

  •  QE2 down to her last £1 million (6+ / 0-)

    Telegraph: Royal no longer flush - Queen 'down to her last million'

    The Queen's finances are at a "historic low" with just £1 million ($1.9 million) left in reserve, British MPs have been told.

    Her courtiers have been advised to take money-saving tips from the Treasury.

    A report by the Public Accounts Committee found that the Queen's advisers were failing to control her finances while the royal palaces were "crumbling".

    MPs said her advisers had overspent to such an extent that her reserve fund had fallen from £35 million in 2001 to just £1 million today.

    •  Reminds me of TekWar (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Magnifico, wader, side pocket, Aunt Pat

      Jake Cardigan and Sid Gomez attend a gala at the Tower of London which marks the start of a campaign to restore the British monarchy. The festivities are disturbed, however, when the aging Prince Albert is found murdered and the sword Excalibur stolen. Prince Richard accepts the support of the Monarchist Party to become King but the thief who stole Excalibur, vows Richard will never reach the throne. Suspecting the involvement of Tek gangs, Sid and Jake follow the sword's trail to Westminster Abbey and are taken prisoner and they soon discover that the Monarchist Party is supported by the TekLords and with them, Prince Richard plans to reign over an evil Tek empire.

      I want 1 less Tiny Coffin, Why Don't You? Support The President's Gun Violence Plan.

      by JML9999 on Fri Jan 31, 2014 at 11:39:41 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

    •  That's rather shoddy-looking money management (4+ / 0-)

      or perhaps something worse, it appears.

      "So, please stay where you are. Don't move and don't panic. Don't take off your shoes! Jobs is on the way."

      by wader on Sat Feb 01, 2014 at 02:23:27 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  Australia to dump mud in Great Barrier Reef (6+ / 0-)

    CNN: Australia to dump dredge spoil in Great Barrier Reef Park

    The Australian federal government has approved a plan to dump 3 million cubic meters of dredge spoil in the Great Barrier Reef Park. The dredged material will come from the proposed expansion of the coal port at Abbot Point, south of Townsville on the Queensland coast.

    Final approval came from the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, and is subject to "strict conditions." The proposal, while controversial and opposed by environmental groups including Greenpeace, had already been approved by Federal Environment Minister Greg Hunt last month.

    Tony Abbott's government has come under fire for a raft of environmental decisions lately, including an election pledge to rescind expansion of Tasmania's World Heritage-listed forest reserve which has united environmental campaigners and the forestry industry, who see the plan as unworkable and damaging in the long term.

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