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In 1894, America was in the midst of what was then the largest depression in its young history. Amidst all of the Sturm und Drang of the Second Industrial Revolution, the railroad industry had overextended itself and a flood of new rail was being laid down in quantities that far exceeded the amount of cash they had pay for it. When the railroad bubble burst, there was a huge run on banks and the market, along with people’s savings, began to shrivel. Unemployment rates were climbing as high as 17-19% and industry was struggling. However, as industry limped along, the labor movement began to pick up steam. 1894 saw the first organized march on Washington with Coxey's Army of unemployed protestors, as well as major strikes by bituminous coal miners all across the country, tailors in New York, and—most significantly—the striking of thousands of railroad workers employed by the Pullman Company, which had laid off hundreds of workers and cut the wages of many of those who remained in response to the crash.

A young Eugene V. Debs joined with the strikers and led his American Railway Union in a national boycott of all trains carrying Pullman cars and before long the national railway system west of Chicago was a shambles. As non-union railway workers joined in and riots began to pop up all over the country, the Pullman Company and local, state and federal government did what one would expect them to do and brought the proverbial hammer down on the striking workers. President Grover Cleveland declared the strike a federal crime and promptly sent out 12,000 US Army troops and thousands of US Marshalls to disperse the rabble-rousers in whatever way they saw fit. By the time the strike had been squashed, 34 men had lost their lives, Debs was sent to prison for his actions, the American Railway Union was forced to disband, and all Pullman employees had to sign documents stating that they would never unionize themselves in the future.

Just 6 days after the end of the Pullman strikes, President Cleveland and his Democratic colleagues in congress made a desperate grab for votes in the 1894 election by signing legislation that making Labor Day an official national holiday. Needless to say, Cleveland’s ploy didn’t work and his Democratic party lost a remarkable 125 seats in the House that November, but Labor Day remained. 120 years later, we still celebrate the holiday, but any substantive affiliation with organized labor or the American worker has vanished. Today, Labor Day is really just a Monday off signaling the end of Summer and the start of football season. It lets us know when it’s inappropriate to wear white and provides us with another excuse to shoot off fireworks and barbeque. Labor Day doesn’t have the same political undertones that May Day celebrations across the world do and it accurately symbolizes the general American apathy towards labor.

While all of us still benefit mightily from the many sacrifices of the labor movement, only 11% of workers in the America actually belong to a union and just over half of us hold a favorable opinion of them. Somewhere over the past 60 years, conservative politicians and the business elite managed to convince much of our nation's workforce that unions were somehow un-American and that—contrary to almost all factual evidence—it was their union bosses and not their economic and political counterparts that were responsible for rising deficits and the exodus of well-paying work; that private sector jobs were in some way more empirically substantive and beneficial than their public sector counterparts.The fact that there has been a direct correlation between the weakening of labor unions and the widening of the wage and wealth gap in America is rarely mentioned and oft-ignored. Faith in collective bargaining and striking has been replaced by many Americans with a faith in the free market and the business community, a faith that is based not on experience and history, but on corporate propaganda and political posturing. In an effort to illustrate the frailty of that corporate faith—and in honor of Labor Day—I'd like to tell you a little story.

The Origins of Labor Day

Last summer, I had the pleasure of meeting a small party of Virginians on tour of Kayford Mountain, an island of unmolested greenery in the midst of a sea of decapitated mountains in the West Virginian Appalachians. There were 4 people in their party, but most of the talking was done by an older gentleman named Jim who actually looked like George W. Bush's well-spoken, eco-friendly doppelganger. Jim and the 3 other people who may or may not have been members of his family (I never asked), brought with them a meticulously packed lunch with them and insisted I join them for a picnic after the tour had ended. Over lunch, the topic naturally drifted towards environmental issues and Jim started telling us about the first job he got after graduating from the University of Virginia. I was expecting him to launch into a story about how he ran off to the rainforests of Costa Rica to do conservation work or some other Greenpeace-friendly endeavor. Suffice it to say, I did not get what I expected:

“I was a scab.” Jim told me. (1)

“You've got to be kidding me.”  

“I kid you not.” Jim said. “First job I got out of college was as a scab for a big energy company.”

“How in the hell did you end up doing that?” I asked.

“Well at the time they offered me the job I didn't know I was being hired on as a scab.” he said. “Heck, I didn't even really know what a scab was. Why would I? I was just a college kid fresh out of Charlottesville. No idea what the real world was going to be like. I was a philosophy major, so it wasn't like employers were beating down my door. I don't know what type of job I expected to get after I graduated, but I'm pretty sure that working at a power plant wasn't too high on the list.”

“Did you know much about the job when you signed up?” I asked.

“No, I really didn't know anything about what the job entailed. The guy who recruited me was really hush hush about the whole deal. All I knew was that I was working for this energy company and that I needed to show up at a certain spot at a certain time with 21 days worth of clothing and they'd be there to pick me up.” Jim told me.

“That's it?”

“That was it.” he said. “In retrospect, I probably should've just quit right then when he told me to bring the 21 days worth of clothes and show up at some random spot for my first day of work. It was really sketchy, but I needed the job, so I went down to where they told me to go, when they told me to go, with a big bag of clothes and just waited."

“So, what happened next?” I asked.

“Well, they showed up in this big gray van and told me to get in. So, I threw my clothes in the back and took a seat and the first thing I saw was that there were 4 other guys who were already in the van. All 4 of them were dressed head to toe in black and all 4 were silent for the entire ride.”

“For the entire ride?”

“The entire ride.” Jim said. “It was genuinely terrifying. I spent the whole time trying figure out what it was they were planning to do to me and all I could come with was that they were going haze me or some weird initiation ritual or something.”

“Did they end up doing anything?” I asked

“No, they didn't do a thing. They just sat there in complete silence for 4 or 5 hours until we pulled into this parking lot in front of a Holiday Inn. As soon as we stopped, they opened the door and told me to get my stuff and get out. I thought we were going to all spend the night there or something as it was already dark out, but the van up and peeled off as soon as I got out.”

“It just left you there?”

"Yeah,” Jim said. “I had absolutely no idea what I was going on. I thought they had just stranded me in this random Holiday Inn parking lot, but less than a minute after the van sped away I see this big helicopter coming down towards me.”

“A helicopter?”

“Yes, a helicopter. It was one of the ones with the glass domes like they had on M*A*S*H. Anyway, the helicopter lands right there in the parking lot and the pilot starts gesturing frantically for me to get in, so I did and we took off. The helicopter pilot was the first guy to really tell me what was going on with the wildcat strike and everything. He said the reason we were flying so late at night to the plant was because some of the strikers had shot at a helicopter earlier that month and they wanted to get me in under cover of darkness.” he told me. “It was absolutely terrifying. Had I known at the very beginning that this was what I was signing up for, there is no way I take that job, which I suppose is why they never told me about any of it until I was trapped in a helicopter 5,000 feet above the ground with no way out.”

“What happened next?” I asked.

“Well, I hate to disappoint, but we ended up making it to the plant without incident. I can't speak to how much danger I was actually in at the time, but I think it was mainly just one of those things where the company's taking every little precaution to make sure they don't get sued for getting one of their workers killed. In reality, I had far more reason to be scared of what might happen to me when I was in the plant as opposed to when I was making my way to it.”

“How so?”

“Lord, that entire place was a death trap.” Jim said. “If you can think of a grisly and hideous way to exit this earth, I'm pretty sure you would've been able to find it at this plant. For 3 weeks straight I worked 18 hour days and I thought I was going to die the whole time. They had these big boilers there that were responsible for sending power to the rest of the factory and it was our job to shovel coal into them around the clock because if they shut down, the whole plant shut down. So each of us would take turns down there; we'd just spending hour after hour after hour chucking shovelfuls of coal into these burners to keep the boiler running and, I don't know if you've ever been near an industrial-sized coal burner, but they are hot. I mean, like 187-degrees all the time hot. Every time I worked down there I thought my face was going to melt right off.”

“That sounds awful.”

“Yeah, and that wasn't even the half of it. There were times when my foreman would actually send me underneath the boilers.”

“They would do what now?” I said in disbelief. “Underneath the boilers?”

“Yep, underneath them. They had these grates on the floor to deal with all drainage from the boilers and every so often they'd get clogged up with rocks and they'd need to get rid of them before they could start the thing running again. Unfortunately for me, the only way to get the drain unclogged was to climb down these rickety ladders made of rebar and remove the stuff by hand, which might sound easy until you remember that I'm roasting the whole time underneath a boiler that's usually running at more than 1000°F. I'm telling you, I honestly thought I was going to die down there.”

“How long did you stay at the job”

"I was only there the 21 days I had to be there.” Jim said. “If I'd have had the chance to leave while I was there, I would've, but we were essentially trapped in the power plant the whole time we were working there. All of us slept together on these threadbare cots in an office somewhere in the plant and we could always tell when it was time to get up because, over the course of the night, the vibrations of the machinery in the plant would slowly shift all of us to one side of the room. We would go to sleep every night with our cots spaced evenly apart and we'd wake up every morning all huddled together against a wall or in a corner.”

“That sounds like hell.” I said.

“Well,” Jim told me, “I've never been to hell, so I can't really say. But, if there's anywhere else on God's green earth that's as miserable as that plant, I've never seen it.”

----------------------

(1) For those who have never heard the term before, a “scab” is a non- union replacement worker who is hired by a corporation to break up striking workers.

Originally posted to Virally Suppressed on Sun Aug 31, 2014 at 11:24 AM PDT.

Also republished by Community Spotlight and Hellraisers Journal.

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Comment Preferences

  •  I've worked in power plants (10+ / 0-)

    I spent 35 years as a Stationary Engineer operating industrial boilers. Every job I've had has been a union job. Maybe that's why I never experienced anything like that. Except for the heat. Don't be a boiler operator if you don't like heat. I've worked 16 hour days in places where the coolest spot was 110 degrees and you had to wear gloves because everything metal was too hot to touch.

    you can't scare me,I'll stick to the Union

  •  Part of the problem (4+ / 0-)

    is not that politicians have convinced us that unions are bad but that it's some of our own experiences. My father-in-law had several experiences at a university where he was unable to fire teachers that were not doing their jobs because of the union. At the same time, other teachers that he tried to keep were fired because the union refused to help (claiming it was not their duty). I know this isn't all of the story, but we've heard stories like this before.

    Recently, I needed help from the union that represents me and of which I am a member. I was told 'sorry, but we can't help you due to our contract with your employer...' That's not politicians telling me they're bad, that's my own personal experience of them being useless and unwilling to fight for me, a worker that relies on them.

    Unions started out as something good, but they've turned into being part of the problem rather than helping with the solution. As with most politicians, the union leaders are corrupt and the system needs to be cleaned of their disease. If unions want more support they need to stop what they have been doing and start doing what they're supposed to, which is standing up for the workers they're supposed to represent and not sitting idly by with their 'hands tied' while workers rights are trampled.

    A good house cleaning is in order to restore confidence in them.

    If god doesn't have a sense of humor I'm f*cked

    by apoliticism on Sun Aug 31, 2014 at 12:47:49 PM PDT

    •  Sorry to hear of your bad experience... (8+ / 0-)

      with unions. It's outrageous that your union is collecting dues from you, but refuses to help you - sounds like they're working for your employer, not you. Minimally they should provide representation to ensure company policy is being followed, and, more importantly, to protect your legal rights.

      The school district I worked for is unionized (NEA), but poor teachers are fired. Yes, there is a lengthy process, but that's what one would hope for if a person invests 4+ years in a college education to be able to be licensed to teach. The idea is to see if the teacher can be helped before casting him or her out onto the street.

      When I was accused of something I didn't do, I called my union representative. The union was ready to send a lawyer if the district made the complaint official and advised me of my rights and what to do. Turned out the complaint was quickly withdrawn and the student confessed to making the story up out of anger - which was good as I had a classroom full of witnesses that could attest to my innocence. The point is, my union was ready to defend me, and I wouldn't have had to pay the legal fees.

      Good unions are there to see that a worker's rights are not violated, and that workers are given a voice, not to protect the incompetent or unscrupulous. In my district, if the administration can present a solid case, the teacher is fired. Unfortunately, as you've pointed out, union representation isn't consistent in this country, which can taint the image of all unions.

      It would be better not to know so many things than to know so many things that are not so. - Felix Okaye

      by eclecticguy on Sun Aug 31, 2014 at 05:36:25 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  I've had good and bad.... (0+ / 0-)

      My first 2 experiences with unions were bad. First the AFL-CIO/Teamsters taking me from a store affiliated with the one that their drivers were striking against-I was a retail clerk. I was told I would not be paid for the time I spent on the picket line for a contract that did not involve mine. In lieu of money for my time, I would be given "dairy care packs" with milk, cheese, eggs, and bread. Unfortunately none of that makes the car or insurance payment. Oh, and by the way, you haven't paid your $250 initiation fee/first month dues yet, when can you get to that?

      Next one was similar, but I was working as a mechanic at a dealership and the mechanics at another dealership went on strike. Newer employees at 6 neighboring dealerships were brought in to make their lines look bigger and allow the older hands to stay at home.

      The IBEW, the electrician's union, has "no strike" clauses in their contracts. After becoming a journeyman and being put in charge of work, officially, except for one that rang every single "Equal Employment Opportunity" bell there was, I had no problem getting people moved when there were personality conflicts and removed when they couldn't pull their weight. Unfortunately, the one time I did have problems doing so, it wasn't just either a personality conflict, direct disobedience/unwillingness to work, or a lack of skills/ability, it was all of the above.

      A simple letter from my home local in San Jose, and I can go anywhere in a few countries that I want to, as long as they have work available, and have proof that I am qualified to be put to work immediately.

    •  Documentation (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Grabber by the Heel, Dirtandiron

      As a union worker there were a number of times when new employees would still be in the probationary stage and management would be advised that they should get rid of them prior to them passing probation which would make it more difficult to get rid of them. Then more documentation was required and management seemed to be too lazy or lacked the backbone to take the appropriate steps to eventually get rid of people. So it's not always because the unions are making it difficult. Sometimes, it's because people in management aren't doing their jobs.

    •  The only thing worse than a job with a Union is a (4+ / 0-)

      job without one.

      Unions like any other large organizations, have good and bad management. But people talk about Unions in a way they never talk about corporations.

      How about disbanding BP and doing a house cleaning of Wall St? If Union leadership ossified in the 1970s, it was after 30 years of delivering the goods for American workers. And sadly this exhaustion of leadership coincided with the renewed efforts of corporate and conservative economic thugs to bust the American Labor Movement. And st ronnie was the dark horse they rode in on. I have had both good and bad experiences with Unions. But because they didn't deliver 100% for me or other members and activists, I never thought the Labor Movement should be abandoned.

      The New Union representing home care workers, has raised these workers wages form an average yearly income of $8,000 to $15,000. And over the 10 years this took it cost the Union Members, on average, $600.

      See what a Union did there?

      Don't let the perfect be the enemy of the good. And if corporate CEOs and Wall St thieves think Unions are bad…well where do the rest of us sign up for representation?

    •  I call BS. (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Dirtandiron, fugwb

      Whenever someone in management says "I can't, because of the union" really means, "I can't do whatever I damn well please."

      And "Can't help due to the contract" means you violated the contract by doing something like not showing up for work for five consecutive days.  For the third time.  Or maybe you failed the drug test. Again. And again.

      If you were so innocent, why would management want to fire you and the union agreed?  Methinks maybe it was you who tied their hands.

      •  I'm with you on this. (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        Dirtandiron

        I'm also sick and tired of people saying "the Unions protect deadbeats" If lazy fucks in management positions would do their jobs they could fire the so-called "deadbeats". Problem is, it takes a little effort.

        6% of scientists are republican. Scientists have no explanation why that number is so high.

        by fugwb on Mon Sep 01, 2014 at 12:37:18 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

    •  So, let's (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Dirtandiron, TRAmnesia

      hear the rest of the story. First, your father-in-law's "several experiences". If your fahter-in-law was in charge of teachers and their performance and they weren't doing their jobs and he couldn't fire them, well, I'd have to say that's on him and he wasn't doing his job.
      As for your experience with the Union. Let's hear the whole story.
      I was a Union officer for over 20 years in the UAW. Sure, there's some bad individuals in positions of power in the Unions, but for you to lump all Union officers as bad is totally out of line.
      Oh and this.

      Unions started out as something good, but they've turned into being part of the problem rather than helping with the solution. As with most politicians, the union leaders are corrupt and the system needs to be cleaned of their disease. If unions want more support they need to stop what they have been doing and start doing what they're supposed to, which is standing up for the workers they're supposed to represent and not sitting idly by with their 'hands tied' while workers rights are trampled.
      Maybe if the MEMBERSHIP would support their Local Union, you know, like go to meetings and vote for politicians that support Labor your Union would function a little better. When was the last time you went to YOUR Union meeting? I'm sick and tired of members whining about their Unions when they do nothing to support them. Oh, it's a hell of a lot more than paying dues...  

      6% of scientists are republican. Scientists have no explanation why that number is so high.

      by fugwb on Mon Sep 01, 2014 at 12:54:02 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Good comment (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        fugwb

        It's important to differentiate between people who are bashing unions, and those who believe in unionism, but simply want to improve the representation they get from their union. It's hard sometimes because the way anti-union propaganda is written.

        Where are all the jobs, Boehner?

        by Dirtandiron on Mon Sep 01, 2014 at 04:37:15 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

  •  My ex sister-in-law (4+ / 0-)

    Her father was a coal miner in Perry County, Ky, but was killed in a coal mine strike in Leslie County. Best I can understand, after being shut down, the mine had reopened non-union and not all miners had been rehired and they were still picketing. He had been brought in from Perry County and rocks were thrown as he drove into work. As he was driving out of the mine property, he stuck a gun out the window. He put the gun back at the urging of the 2 men with him, but a shot was fired, from the direction of the fire pit according to one of the witnesses, and came through the back of the cab and into his back and exited under his left arm. Some were arrested, but no one was ever convicted. There was a gun in every truck.

    She has written a book about this incident and her life as a young girl in Perry County. It reads like the diary of a 15 year old mountain girl. It's a good story, but I wish she had had a better editor. It's called "No Tears for Ernest Creech". He himself had been on strike before, but as her mother said, "the union couldn't feed them". When he was killed, he left behind 9 children and a pregnant wife. My ex SIL is politically kind of innocent and the book features several articles and quotes from a Theodore Hume who wrote for a conservative magazine called Human Events. He befriended the family, but used the story to propagandize against Unions and The Great Society programs. But, a discerning reader will note that even though her father risked his life everyday, his family still had to resort to government commodities to survive and I know they relied on government help after his death. They did receive money from the company some of which they had to return when they received a settlement from the United Mine Workers. I believe the company even questioned whether his death was work related since he was not on mine property when he was killed.

  •  Scabs Suck! (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Dirtandiron, Grabber by the Heel

    To be first in the soil, which erupts in the coil, of trees veins and grasses all brought to a boil. -- The Maxx

    by notrouble on Sun Aug 31, 2014 at 03:30:16 PM PDT

  •  . (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Dirtandiron, thanatokephaloides

    I really don't know of any effective effort being done in the US for labor and truly improving the situation for workers.

    "History records that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit, and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling the money and its issuance." -James Madison

    by FreeTradeIsYourEpitaph on Sun Aug 31, 2014 at 03:58:41 PM PDT

    •  Corporate media only reports bad news about Unions (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Dirtandiron

      I'm so old I remember when every major paper had a Labor reporter and workers weren't described as exotic creatures on the endangered species list, that are sadly doomed and can't be saved.

      Don't except the unreality of the way corporations and Wall St explain the world.

       

      •  . (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        Grabber by the Heel

        "Don't accept the unreality of the way corporations and Wall St explain the world".

        I don't accept anything they say, but the sucking sound of globalization destroyed my life once already and I'm headed into another economically dangerous time (layoffs ahead and 10 years older).  

        Government might as well start paring down the military to 1% of its current size and cost and do away with 30, 15 or 10 year mortgages because there is no way a burger flipping economy can support any of it.

        My father was worried in 1978 about a $30 billion trade deficit as he was a trained economist and worked as a trade representative till he retired.  I'm glad he doesn't have to see what has been done to this country.

        "History records that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit, and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling the money and its issuance." -James Madison

        by FreeTradeIsYourEpitaph on Tue Sep 02, 2014 at 07:05:15 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

  •  Again, union support breaks down, (4+ / 0-)

    like almost every issue, along racial lines.  In that Pew poll you cite, just 46% of Whites viewed unions favorably compared to 69% of Blacks and 58% of Hispanics.

    http://www.people-press.org/...

  •  Correction: A scab is (0+ / 0-)

    A scab is a person hired by the company to (at least temporarily) take the place of striking workers. They are not used by corporations to break  up striking workers.

  •  We need a nationwide strike (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Grabber by the Heel, Dirtandiron

    Everybody needs to go out for about a week. Shut the country down.

    The thing I see is that now workers are afraid to strike.

    It's interesting.

    The middle class is slipping, people being fired for facebook posts, mandatory overtime. Workers forced to take cuts so stockholders can get the big dividend, CEO huge pay raise. American workers jobs being sent overseas.

    Yet any time there is a thread like this you see more comments about unions being unreasonable, or somehow crooked, or keeping unqualified people on the payroll.

    You see more of that that sort of cherry picking stuff that reinforces the right wing talking points than you see of the excesses of corporate America, it's really a sin on a progressive blog.

    The government is in the pocket of the rich to a greater or lesser degree. We can talk about health care, or unemployment, or raising the min wage, or other things that would help the middle class that the gov't can do, but the chance of it happening is LOW, especially when our best chance Obama has ordered strikers back to work and the Clintons are all about selling US workers jobs out. I mean if that's the best we got we are FUCKED.

    The only hope for the US worker is to quit sniping at unions, join them and then to have the balls to strike. Joining unions and then expecting something to change without action on our part is stupid.

    •  I agree but (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Dirtandiron
      Everybody needs to go out for about a week. Shut the country down.
      The problem is: as a non-union worker, I get paid wage slave level wages. Which means I live hand to mouth. A week of no income would (further) destroy me. And likely make me homeless. And in the current economic climate, how many of the currently unemployed do you think would jump at the chance to work, even if only temporarily?

      I would love to have union representation. But I live in a "Right to Get Fired for No Reason (aka Right to Work [there's an Orwellian masterpiece]) state. There is virtually no union representation here.

      The major difference between a thing that might go wrong and a thing that cannot possibly go wrong is that when a thing that cannot possibly go wrong goes wrong it usually turns out to be impossible to get at and repair. Douglas Adams

      by coyote66 on Mon Sep 01, 2014 at 10:20:02 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  At some point, coyote66, (0+ / 0-)

        your dignity will be worth more than your house.  Look for a different job (preferably union).  If you're not qualified, get qualified.  As a working American, you, and all workers, deserves wages and benefits that allow them to be successful, prosper, and raise a family.  

    •  I think the labor laws have union officials hands (0+ / 0-)

      firmly tied. I believe you can only strike for issues related to your workplace and contract. General strikes for issues facing all workers in general is illegal here in the U.S. , unfortunately.

      Where are all the jobs, Boehner?

      by Dirtandiron on Mon Sep 01, 2014 at 11:12:04 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  May Day (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Dirtandiron

    A related question is why is labour day not held on May 1?  Why do no workers in the United States celebrate international worker's day?

  •  Best History of American Labor I know (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Dirtandiron

    is "Labor's Untold Story" Every progressive needs to read this book IMHO.

    "The Democrats and the Republicans are equally corrupt where money is concerned. It's only in the amount where the Republicans excel." ~ Will Rogers

    by Lefty Coaster on Mon Sep 01, 2014 at 11:23:22 AM PDT

  •  The Old Umbrella Mender (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Dirtandiron

    is a true account by the great Eugene V. Debs of his meeting with a desperately poor old man who'd lost everything for the A.R.U. and proudly said, "I never scabbed": https://www.marxists.org/...

    After reading that, hopefully none of us would.

    Solidarity.

    garden variety democratic socialist: accepting life's complexity|striving for global stewardship of our soil and other resources to meet everyone's basic needs|being a friend to the weak

    by Galtisalie on Mon Sep 01, 2014 at 03:53:42 PM PDT

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