Trilogies have beginnings, middles and ends. Think of "Star Wars," "Lord of the Rings," "The Godfather." I've used up my trilogy points in the little series I posted on Howie Rich's old friends Charles and David Koch, arguably his most successful associates from their National Libertarian Party days. I introduced them in a prologue to the series, outlined a bit of their history in business and Libertarian philosophy in Part I, sketched their connections to conservative/Republican politics and the Dubya administration in Part II, and highlighted in Part III their coup de grace, their purchase of Georgia-Pacific. It made their company, Koch Industries, the largest privately-owned company in America (does that mean the world, too?).
So why mention them again? Didn't Michael Corleone's death mark the end of the Godfather series? Didn't the Lord of the Rings journey come to an end with the resolution of the ring? And didn't the re-emergence of the Jedi polish off the Star Wars saga? Why should we spend a moment imagining what happened the morning after "happily ever after"?
Why, indeed. I suggest that the steady stream of Google alerts begs an epilogue, constant reader. You know that my main focus has been the sowing of ballot measures by Howie Rich and his state-based associates across the country, and Google alerts keep me supplied with media and Internet updates on them, including his so-called Taxpayer Bill of Rights, or TABOR, which remains on the ballot in three states. But while paying attention to these papers this year, I noticed another recurring theme, and there we find our brief epilogue. We'll call it, Paul-Harvey-style, "the rest of the story."
[Note: While most of my diaries draw from news articles with current and live links, many of the link references in this post don't take you to the intended destination anymore, as Google delivered them to me during the past few months and the referenced articles have been archived since then. In those cases, you may have to use a search engine at the link's website to find the original.]
A segue will help. From Part III we draw these notes: In 2004, Koch Industries purchased two subsidiary operations from Georgia-Pacific, then followed up in 2005 with a $22 billion purchase of Georgia-Pacific itself, taking a huge publicly-traded company private once again. "With the addition of Georgia-Pacific, which will become a unit of Koch, the company's revenue will exceed $80 billion, and it will have more than 80,000 employees around the world," wrote one reporter here http://www.jsonline.com/....
I estimated that was a lot of employees in a lot of plant locations worldwide. But in heralding the merger in the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, former Georgia Congressman Bob Barr wrote here
http://www.newsbull.com/... "From Day One, the top priority of management at both companies was not spinning Wall Street analysts, but assuring existing employees that they were highly valued by the merged company." I observed that a reasonable reader could imagine that current Georgia-Pacific employees from coast to coast were pleased to hear Barr's words, that "existing employees" would be "highly valued by the merged company." And rightly so, I thought, because following a lot of merger deals, many veteran employees find themselves filing for unemployment. But that wouldn't be the case here, Barr seemed to tell us.
Still, Western Region Builder News, the largest regional building trade magazine in the nation, expressed the feelings of some plant employees here http://www.buildernewsmag.com/... "Of regional concern are the thousands of GP employees Koch will be adding to its massive payroll. At present Koch employs 30,000 workers in 50 counties and says it `has no plans to trim jobs.' GP currently employs about 4,000 people in Oregon (facilities are located in Albany, Canby, Clatskanie, Coos Bay, Eugene, Fairview, Halsey, Philomath, Portland, Toledo and White City) and 1,700 in Washington (Camas, Bellingham, Issaquah, Olympia and Tacoma)."
For a bit, it appeared that only one job would be lost by the merger: after serving through a "transition," "Pete" Correll, the Georgia-Pacific CEO who shepherded his company for the past 16 years, announced his retirement in June of this year. He would keep the title, "chairman emeritus," as reported here http://members.whattheythink.com/....
But, unfortunately, that wasn't the end of the story.
One of the earliest notices came from the Wichita Business Journal in April. Its reporter, Bill Wilson, told us here http://wichita.bizjournals.com/... that "[f]our months into life as the world's largest privately held company, Koch Industries' search for operations efficiency is going full tilt at Georgia-Pacific in Atlanta. One paper mill already is on the block and one wood products business has been closed as part of a Georgia-Pacific efficiency review. And the initial shift of Koch employees to Atlanta has slowed -- but likely won't end soon. Georgia-Pacific officials expect an economic think tank similar to Wichita's Market-Based Management Institute to be established in Atlanta."
The WBJ's editors called it "Koch-izing Georgia Pacific" in their headline over Wilson's story.
Wilson wrote, "Georgia-Pacific announced in mid-March it plans to sell its mill in Old Town, Maine, which employs about 400 workers." The news came as no surprise to Jim McNutt, executive director of the Center for Paper Business and Industry Studies in Atlanta. McNutt told Wilson that the new owners' strategy was likely to "spin value out of underperforming units. They're going to identify and close the poor-performing tissue mills and optimize the return."
Only three years earlier, Maine leaders succeeded in keeping the same mill open. McNutt blamed "high workers compensation and a 17 percent investment tax" for the mill's jeopardy.
Old Town and its 400 workers weren't alone; another 210 full-time employees in Gaylord, Michigan, learned that their 41-year-old plant, too, would close.
Wilson's story was a good-news, bad-news tale. While the 610 plant jobs were lost, "about 25" Koch Industries managers made the move from Wichita to Atlanta, and others were predicted by Georgia Pacific spokeswoman Sheila Weidman.
McNutt worried to Wilson that the Koch management model, called "Market Based Management" or MBM, might not fit the paper and tissue industry. But Weidman sought to allay that fear, and he suggested that marketing would trump other industry principles. But Weidman sought to allay that fear. "There's been no discussion of spinning tissues," she told Wilson. "One of the things Charles told us when he came down here in December was the main way we could help build on Koch's success is through marketing."
She said "the company may make a deal with either Georgia Tech or Georgia State University to begin teaching MBM to employees."
But the Wichita Business Journal didn't get the scoop. That came nearly a month earlier, when first the Gaylord Herald Times of Michigan, then the Associated Press in Maine reported the round of job cuts.
Herald Times editor Peter Comings reported here (link now inactive: http://www.gaylordheraldtimes.com/...) that "corporate officials told first shift employees the particle board plant has closed permanently" and that "notices were sent to the remaining employees, 210 in all. As many as 50 employees, salaried and hourly, will be kept on through April or early May to finish shipping out product."
But Comings added, "Company spokesperson James Malone said Monday morning the move is unrelated to the November takeover of G-P Inc. by Koch Industries of Wichita, Kansas."
Employees at four other particle board facilities dodged a bullet. Comings wrote that plants in "Vienna, Ga., Russellville, S.C., Taylorsville and Louisville, Miss. will remain in operation."
Comings's colleagues on the Herald Times editorial board lamented the news here (link now inactive: http://www.gaylordheraldtimes.com/...), writing, "A mere four months ago, Gaylord employees at Georgia-Pacific's particle board plant were encouraged by the company's purchase and transfer to the private sector by Koch Industries of Wichita, Kansas. Monday, they were given notice the plant was closed."
They acknowledged the advice of company spokesmen, that other solutions had been sought, that the market was glutted with product. But, they continued, "none of that is any consolation to the 210 people who found themselves out of work. None of that is any consolation to the countless people who depended on that money trickling through the community to restaurants, retail stores and businesses which contracted with Georgia-Pacific. Yes, Otsego County will - because we do - rally around those who need help in the short term."
A week later, Maine AP reporter David Sharp called the news "blow to the state's paper industry." State leaders went "scrambling" for alternatives for the 400 Old Town workers, he wrote.
Sharp added that the mill would "begin shutting down over the next few days but Georgia-Pacific will maintain the facility for 60 days while the state seeks a buyer. Georgia-Pacific pledged that workers would receive regular pay and benefits over the next 60 days, regardless of whether they leave their jobs sooner than that. Production will begin winding down immediately and the process could take a week, said Ted Sapoznik, Georgia-Pacific's vice president of consumer products manufacturing. Also, it'll take a week or so to ship remaining inventory from the mill, he said."
Old Town's bad news extended past its borders, however. Sharp explained, "Four wood chip mills in Costigan, Milo, Portage and Houlton that supplied raw material to the Georgia-Pacific mill also will cease operations. The chip mills, which employ 30 people, ceased operations on Thursday."
Congressman Michael Michaud said the job cuts would "hurt many, many households, and the effects could ripple through the economy of Penobscot County and our entire state." Michaud had a personal connection to the industry: he's a former paper mill worker.
Republican lawmakers expressed "deep regret" here http://www.mehousegop.com/... "Our sympathies are with the workers and all the people of Old Town," said Rep. David Bowles, leader of the House Republicans. "We sincerely hope that a buyer will come forward and that the mill can be saved."
"Sen. Carol Weston, assistant leader of the Senate Republicans, said, `Jobs in Maine are precious, and before we worry about adding new ones we need make sure to keep the jobs we have. We need to know what the state can do to encourage companies here to compete so they can avoid failure'."
"George-Pacific spokesman Robert Burns said the company will work with state officials over the next 60 days to try to find a suitable buyer for the mill."
"The State of Maine in recent years has invested millions of dollars trying to keep the mill in operation. The state upgraded railroad systems and assumed the risk for a Georgia-Pacific landfill in hopes of keeping the company in Maine."
That sounds nutty to me. Maine taxpayers invested millions to upgrade railroads that would benefit the company, and "assumed the risk" for a landfill, just to keep the company in operation. But in the end, 400 Mainers lost their jobs?
Who exactly was investing in whom?
By the end of the month, "numbers" were "starting to roll in," wrote Gaylord Herald Times reporter Mary Jergenson here (link now inactive: http://www.gaylordheraldtimes.com/...). "About $12 million in annual payroll - nearly $8 million in Otsego County alone - will be lost as the result of this month's announced closing of the Georgia-Pacific (G-P) plant and its effect on ancillary businesses."
"The 210 direct jobs lost when the plant closed represent 13.5 percent of manufacturing jobs in Otsego County. Of those jobs lost, 74 percent of them were held by people who live in the county," explained Otsego County Economic Alliance Executive Director Jeff Ratcliffe.
"The plant closing represents $8 million in wages for G-P employees, at an average of $18 per hour. In addition, vendors and suppliers of G-P have been forced to cut an additional 155 jobs since the plant closed."
Ratcliffe told Jergenson that the loss of wages for Otsego County workers would be $5.9 million, followed by "second-tier job losses" bringing another "another $4 million in payroll cuts, at an average $12 per hour, $2 million from within the county."
"One small business owner called today, he employs about 22 people," Ratcliffe told Jergenson. "He doesn't know what to do. Ninety-five percent of his business was with G-P."
A month later, from the hamlet of Warwick, New York, came this note in the Times Herald-Record: "After nearly 40 years in the village, the Georgia-Pacific printing plant on Forester Avenue is moving its operations to Oklahoma by year's end. The plant employs 49 people, mostly press operators who print labels on plastic packaging for consumer products such as paper towels and toilet paper," wrote reporter Mike Dawson here http://archive.recordonline.com/....
"People are taking it well, but it's hard. We have people here who started working on our first runs (in 1969)," said David Root, the plant's manager. Root told Dawson that the press operators' average wage ranges from $12 to $20 an hour and that only a few employees actually lived in Warwick; most commuted from about 40 minutes to an hour away.
Then from Georgia's Atlanta Business Chronicle on May 9, this news here http://www.bizjournals.com/... "Georgia-Pacific Corp. plans to shut down and sell its Savannah, Ga., hardwood plywood facility and cut 160 jobs starting June 17, according to the Georgia Department of Labor.
"These decisions are always difficult to make. Our employees produce a high-quality product and run a very safe facility. Unfortunately, improvements to the operations and the capital investments we have made will not make us profitable," its editors quote Mike Rehwinkel, president of Georgia-Pacific's wood panels business.
Built in 1949 by General Plywood, the Savannah facility produces specialty hardwood plywood panels and paneling. Because of the location, size of the property and the Savannah industrial real estate market, the company said it has received a "substantial level of interest" in the site. The company expects to sell the plant by the end of summer.
At first, news was less clear from Oklahoma in late June, when spokesman Gill Luton of the Georgia Pacific mill in Muskogee told reporter Donna Hales that no one knew if "rapid transformation" at the plant would result in a "workforce reduction."
Luton told Hales here (link now inactive: http://www.muskogeephoenix.com/...), "There's going to be a change. At this time we don't know what those (changes) will be."
Hales said the mill had 1,350 employees and a local annual payroll of $70 million as of February. Luton told her, she wrote, that "a change is taking place at all the Georgia-Pacific facilities. The corporation's new owner, Koch Industries, seeks to improve Georgia-Pacific's `competitive measure, productivity and reliability'."
"This is intended to guarantee our long-term survival," Luton told Hales.
But the news was clearer by July 10, when Muskogee's KOTV-TV reported the offer of employee buyouts. KOTV reported here (link directs to KOTV-TV: http://www.kotv.com/... "One of Muskogee's largest employers has started offering its employees buyout packages in what a company spokesman says is an effort to improve its returns. Georgia-Pacific, a maker of building materials, tissue products, paper and gypsum wallboard, said in February that it employed 1,350 people in Muskogee at a facility with a payroll of $70-million. The company is owned by Koch Industries of Wichita, Kansas."
"The buyout package would pay employees a lump sum equal to $10,000 and offer two weeks of severance pay for each year of continuous employment. The offer is good until August 11th. Luton says there is no set amount of employees or payroll to be cut in Muskogee."
That was Monday in Oklahoma. On Tuesday in the southern Mississippi town of Monticello, the Associated Press reported in the Sun-Herald that "eighty-five hourly jobs will be eliminated at the Georgia-Pacific mill in Monticello." Salaried employees would be offered severance packages, it reported.
But the AP item included passages from a Georgia Pacific press release here (link now inactive: http://www.sunherald.com/...): "In a company news release, Georgia-Pacific officials said, `A large number of mills across the country have shut down, but the Monticello mill has an opportunity to embrace change and stay in business. Georgia-Pacific must focus on operating efficiency to achieve long-term survival and profitability. Over the past five years, the overall paper industry has not earned adequate returns for investors - public or private."
"The Monticello plant employs 555 employees - 419 hourly and 136 salaried," the Associated Press reported.
Seeing the wave of cuts, leaders of the Georgia Pacific Wauna Mill apparently sought to adopt improvements ahead of the curve, and head off any bad news. According to the minutes of the Clatsop County Board of Commissioners, mill managers told them that Wauna was competing "within its corporation to be one of two locations for a major expansion worth up to $200 million."
To enhance Wauna's chances of winning this "competition" within the company, mill managers asked the board for property tax abatements on new investment. The details are here http://www.co.clatsop.or.us/... but here's the point: "After looking at Oregon's incentive programs, the mill plans to apply for the Oregon Strategic Investment Program and is asking the county's support for its application. This incentive program is designed to encourage investment by abating property taxes on new investment by any `traded sector' business, like manufacturing, that trades nationally or internationally. For 15 years, local governments in rural areas assess property taxes only on the first $25 million of the firm's investment, with the exemption threshold increasing 3 percent every year. The company also pays a `community service fee' to the county of 25 percent of the year's tax savings but capped at $500,000."
I'm not an expert in tax policy, but I wonder if it could be interpreted that if this board of commissioners didn't grant the requested property tax abatements, jobs at Wauna could ultimately be lost? But if the board granted the property tax abatements, jobs would be preserved but local revenue would be lost? If that interpretation is accurate enough, then, is the decision one of jobs versus local budget revenue?
"The Strategic Investment Program requires a public process that begins with a public hearing by the local jurisdiction; in this case, the county commissioners," the minutes read. "Wauna is on a fast track with its application because its parent company, Koch Industries, plans to make a decision on the locations for the expansion by the end of July. The mill is asking the Board of Commission to officially request the Oregon Economic and Community Development Commission approve the tax incentive request."
Meanwhile, leaders in Maine were hard at work finding a safety net for workers who lost their Old Town Mill jobs. On August 4, the U.S. Department of Labor announced here http://releases.usnewswire.com/... "a grant of $716,388, with an initial release of $285,744, to assist approximately 190 workers affected by the closure of Georgia Pacific Paper Mills in Maine."
The DOL press release stated, "On March 16, Georgia Pacific announced it would close facilities in Old Town, Maine, as of May 15. Workers from that location and feeder plants in Houlton, Milo, Costigan and Portage, Maine, are covered under this grant. Additionally, on May 25, all of the workers covered by this grant also were certified as eligible to apply for services under the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) program. Through the TAA program, eligible workers will receive training through admission to community colleges and other eligible providers."
It added that the grant would help fired workers "update their skills to launch new careers in high-growth industries, ...receive training and job placement assistance. These workers will benefit from workshops and reemployment services that will help them build bright futures in new jobs."
Reporter Amy Radishofski explained further here http://www.manufacturing.net/... that "The grant, awarded to the Main Dept. of Labor's Bureau of Employment Services, will provide the affected workers a continuum of re-employment services to include recruitment and assessment, workshops, basic skills development, job search assistance and placement and retention services."
So on August 4 in Maine, the news was good. Four days later in Oregon, the news was bad. The Associated Press published its report (no live link available). It reported, "More than 100 workers at Georgia-Pacific's Wauna mill will lose their jobs as part of a drive for corporate efficiency. The exact number of cuts prompted by the company's new owner, Koch Industries, will be announced when an assessment of the mill's operations is finished. The assessment began this week. Mill manager James Jordan said the layoffs will affect 30 supervisory and management employees and 90 to 100 hourly workers. The plan currently employs 1,050."
"The announcement comes less than a month after the company sought support from Clatsop County for tax breaks to help it lure a new paper machine to the plant, an addition that could add dozens of new jobs."
The same news was reported here http://www.kgw.com/....
Reporter Ted Sickinger of the Oregonian dug deeper, finding here http://www.oregonlive.com/... that "a talking-points memo distributed Monday to supervisors at Georgia-Pacific Corp.'s Wauna Mill says the company plans to lay off 130 workers at the complex, on the Columbia River near Westport. The memo circulated about two weeks after G-P landed an economic-development tax break for an investment at the mill. The memo, a copy of which The Oregonian reviewed, said the layoffs would affect about 30 salaried employees and 100 hourly employees, half in the maintenance department and half in operations areas."
"The company did not return calls to The Oregonian to confirm the memo's contents, but told The Daily Astorian that the cuts probably would take place in five to six weeks when G-P's new owner, Koch Industries Inc., completes an evaluation of its pulp and paper operations to gain new efficiencies. The planned cuts represent about 12 percent of the mill's 1,050 employees," Sickinger explained.
He continued, "Tuesday's numbers came soon after economic development officials from Clatsop County and the state approved a big property tax break on a $193 million paper towel machine that the company is considering building at the mill. The break was negotiated under a new version of the state's Strategic Investment Program, which exempts all but $25 million of the company's investment at the mill from property tax, in exchange for community service fees equal to 25 percent of the abated amount. The company estimates the tax break will save it $15 million over 15 years."
Whoa. This sounds like what happened in Maine, where Maine taxpayers invested millions in railroad upgrades and a landfill, then lost their Old Town Mill anyway. Now, Oregonians are excusing all but $25 million in taxes on a $193 million expansion - not the plant itself, but an expansion - by the company, and 130 Oregonians are still losing their jobs?
But, Sickinger added, "Company officials said last week that one of the reasons they chose to apply for the Strategic Investment Program, instead of a property tax break under the state's enterprise zone program, is that the former comes with no obligation to maintain specific employment levels. They said, however, that the tax break, if it helps attract the investment, could save 40 jobs."
So at an expense of untold tens of millions of dollars in property taxes, 130 jobs have been lost, and 40 have been saved. My third grade math teacher would've called that a net loss - a big one.
On September 15, reporter Edward Fulford published this lead paragraph here (link now inactive: http://www.effinghamherald.net/...): "Effingham's Georgia Pacific plant has been quietly cutting its workforce. Employees indicate the number of jobs affected is at least 117 -- or about 8 percent of the plant's 1,400 workforce."
"A mid-level manager at the plant, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said the job cuts are part of a `rapid transformation' that began Tuesday, Sept. 5," Fulford wrote. He quoted the anonymous manager saying, "We terminated 19 salaried employees, some of them with almost 20 years experience in the mill."
But plant manager Russ McCollister told Fulford the impact on employees would be "very minimal."
"We're very strategic in Georgia Pacific, so we structured the implementation of the new operating model in a manner that provides our employees with various alternatives depending on their individual situations," he said. Of the "rapid transformation, McCollister told Fulford, "The activity is centered on eliminating waste and establishing work processes that eliminate all types of waste and improve reliability, efficiency and productivity."
Lawmakers told Fulford they were surprised by the announcement. State Sen. Jack Hill said, "It's a little bit of a surprise, because my understanding is that was a very profitable plant." Rincon Mayor Ken Lee told the reporter that he'd gotten no notice from the company about any job cuts. "It's hard to know exactly how it may impact the county. It's going to have an effect. How substantial, I don't know."
In early October, "rapid transformation" was being introduced to the Georgia Pacific plant in Halsey, Oregon. Reporter Alex Paul wrote here http://www.gtconnect.com/... "Nearly 500 employees at the Georgia-Pacific mill at Halsey are participating in an operations excellence program called `rapid transformation,' that when completed in a few months, could result in staff reductions. The company hopes to see greater efficiency and productivity through improved work methods at the mill. About 100 employees are salaried and 400 are hourly production workers. The average annual salary is about $50,000 plus benefits. Employees are currently in a `training phase' that will include forming cross-functional teams assigned to evaluate each work process in the plant."
"The rapid transformation process has already been implemented at other Georgia-Pacific mills in Oregon, including one near Toledo that employs 480 people and the Wauna Mill near Clatskanie, which employs 900. Staff reductions are often the end result of the process, which is intended to keep companies competitive in a global marketplace."
Just last week, this word came from tiny Catawba, South Carolina, reported by Jason Ryan and the Associated Press here http://www.thestate.com/... "Georgia-Pacific began layoffs of 80 workers Thursday at a wooden siding and trim plant in Catawba. The company was unsure if the employees would be rehired or if more layoffs would come. A hundred employees remain in Catawba. Georgia-Pacific tied the layoffs to decreased demand from the construction trade. Georgia-Pacific has 12 S.C. facilities and 1,800 workers."
Of course, this is clearly a story that has no end. Constant readers may take new vocabulary from this series, terms like "creative destruction" and "rapid transformation," which may mean the same thing. Remember that creative destruction, as described by Charles Koch to Wall Street Journal editorialist Stephen Moore here http://www.opinionjournal.com/... is "where the old and inefficient are ruthlessly swept away by the new."
"Long term success entails constantly discovering new ways to create value for customers and building new capabilities to capture new opportunities," Koch tells Moore. "In this sense, maintaining a business is, in reality, liquidating a business."
In the interest of giving honor where it's due, just as we give credit where it's due to the intrepid journalists listed below, let's dedicate this epilogue to the 400 workers from the Old Town Mill in Maine; the 210 workers in Gaylord, Michigan; the 49 workers in Warwick, New York; the 160 workers in Savannah, Georgia; the unknown number of workers who adopted the buyout in Muskogee, Oklahoma; the 85 workers in Monticello, Mississippi; the 130 workers at the Wauna Mill in Oregon; at least 117 workers - so far - in Effingham, Georgia; the unknown number of workers presently holding their breath while "rapid transformation" is under way in Halsey, Oregon; and the 80 workers in Catawba, South Carolina. That's at least 1,231 Americans who had jobs a year ago.
God bless them and keep them safe.
Editors, "Georgia-Pacific to close Savannah plant"
Reporter Edward Fulford, "GP cuts jobs, workers jittery"
Reporter Bill Wilson, "'Koch-izing' Georgia Pacific: Mill for sale as paper firm targets efficiency"
AP Reporter David Sharp, "Georgia-Pacific's Old Town mill is shutting down, officials say"
House & Senate Republican Office, "GOP Leaders Express Regret about Old Town Mill Closure"
Editor Peter Comings, "Georgia-Pacific plant closing eliminates 210 jobs"
Editors, "G-P closure leaves a void"
Reporter Mary Jergenson, "Impact: $12 million"
Associated Press, "Georgia-Pacific Closing Gaylord Plant"
Associated Press, "Georgia-Pacific to cut 85 jobs at Monticello plant"
U.S. Department of Labor, "U.S. Labor Secretary Announces $716,388 Grant for Dislocated Workers in Maine; Funds to Help Georgia-Pacific Workers"
Reporter Amy Radishofski, "Displaced Georgia Pacific Workers Eligible for DOL Grant"
Reporter Mike Dawson, "Plant closure cuts 49 jobs in Warwick"
Reporter Donna Hales, "Georgia-Pacific mill will see changes"
KOTV-TV, "Georgia-Pacific In Muskogee Begins Offering Buyout Packages"
Clatsop County Board of Commissioners minutes, July 12
Associated Press, "New owner of Oregon mill cutting jobs"
Reporter Ted Sickinger, "Georgia-Pacific cutting 130 workers at Wauna Mill"
Reporter Alex Paul, "Changes in store for Halsey G-P mill"
Reporter Jason Ryan and the Associated Press, "Georgia-Pacific begins layoffs in S.C."