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PhotobucketEach week I watch the weather for the coming weekend. For me, good foraging weather means a sunny to partially cloudy day in the 70s with little wind. (Windy days make closeup photography much more difficult.) The weather for the preceding three days also plays a role; fungi hunting is best after rainy days, while berry hunting is aided by sunny days. (For a multitude of reasons, this series won't be covering fungi. To learn more about mushrooms, go foraging with a local group.)

Alas, Saturday's forecast was for rain, followed by intermittent rain with a light chaser of rain. Today was supposed to be even wetter. So yesterday I packed an umbrella and raincoat. But it didn't rain a single drop, and the only clouds that dotted the blue sky were the puffy cumulus kind. The 70 degree weather made me feel silly walking around with a raincoat tied at my waist. (Left: Central Park Waterfall by wide eyed lib)

At least I found some delicious greens to munch.

Covered: curly dock, mallow, ground ivy & fiddleheads

[As always, if you're new to foraging and want to give it a try, please read the first diary in the FFF series for some important information.]

PhotobucketCurly dock, also known as yellow dock, makes its first appearance in early Spring as a basal rosette with leaves that can exceed 1 1/2 feet in length. Originally from Europe, curly dock has long, narrow, bright green leaves with lighter ribs and veins. The veins are unusual in that they spread out toward the edges of the leaves but curl back inwards before they actually arrive. The frilly edges of the leaves give curly dock its name. The surest way I've found for identifying curly dock is to feel along the leaf axil where the leaf stems spring from the basal rosette. At the base of the youngest leaves, you will find traces of a slimy, transparent sheath. Once you feel that slickness, you can be reasonably certain you have the right plant. On older leaves, the sheath may dry up and become crinkly or disappear entirely. (Above: Curly Dock by wide eyed lib)

In summer, curly dock shoots a grooved, stiff flower stalk up to 5 feet in the air. Alternate leaves spring from the stalk, and toward the top where the leaf stems meets the stalk, individual flower stems soon become clustered with tiny flowers with 6 white, pink or green sepals. The dense flowers yield to equally dense, 3-sided, reddish-brown and papery husks, each of which contains a small seed. When I say dense, I mean dense; a single curly dock plant can have as many as 40,000 seeds.

Curly dock is found coast to coast in the U.S. and the Southern provinces of Canada and is classified as invasive in many places. There are many similar species of docks (such as bitter or broad-leaf dock), all related to buckwheat and all edible, though some may have unpalatably bitter leaves or overly woody taproots.

PhotobucketAll parts of curly dock are edible, from the large yellow taproot to the rusty brown seeds. The leaves are delicious with a wonderful lemony tang. They can be eaten raw or lightly steamed. Some sources say that the peeled stems are also edible, but I found them far too woody, even after peeling. (Word of caution: cooked dock leaves very quickly turn an unappetizing grey-green color and have a distressing tendency to become slimy. Both issues can be solved by using a wet cooking method and/or cooking them with other greens. I recently made a side dish of sauteed curly dock that, while absolutely delicious, was disconcertingly slimy and grey.) The leaves get increasingly bitter once the flower stalk appears, and the flower stalk gets woody once the flowers appear, so gather accordingly. All green parts are exceptionally nutritious, with high quantities of Vitamin C, protein, calcium, potassium, iron and beta carotene, among other virtues. (Above: Curly Dock Leaf by wide eyed lib)

The long, yellow taproot can be cooked and eaten like any root vegetable, although some people may find it bitter or tough. If you try it and don't like it, taste the water you cooked it in. This "tea" contains loads of potassium, iron and manganese and has been used to treat anemia. It is also good for the blood, liver and skin. All parts of curly dock also have a mild laxative effect.

Some sources say that because of the husks, the seeds are too much trouble to bother with, but others say that the quantities that can be easily gathered make the effort worthwhile. Once winnowed, the seeds can be eaten raw, roasted or dried and ground into flour.

Like wood sorrel and sheep sorrel, curly dock leaves are high in oxalic acid, so people with kidney problems or calcium absorption issues should proceed with caution. Additionally, the seeds are very high in Vitamin A. While eating the seeds alone or sprinkled over salads is pretty unlikely to result in Vitamin A toxicity, the flour should be used sparingly in conjunction with other flours. About a tablespoon contains the full RDA of Vitamin A.

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PhotobucketCommon mallow, like its more famous cousin marshmallow, is a perennial or biennial herb with concave leaves that resemble scoops. Both plants are non-native, with the former found everywhere on this continent and the latter mostly in salt marshes and tidal rivers in the Northeastern U.S. and Canada. I've never found marshmallow in my area, so my focus here will be primarily on common mallow. (Left: Common Mallow by wide eyed lib)

Common mallow's ruffle-edged, slightly lobed leaves are round and have seven prominent veins eminating from the stem, which appears to grow from the center of the leaf. It grows wild on lawns and meadows and is often planted decoratively as well (in which case you should probably leave it be unless you have permission). The plants are usually about 1 foot high, and the leaves balance atop long, somewhat ungainly leafstalks. The mid-Spring flowers can be white, pink or lilac colored, and all have five, distinctive, notched petals. Shortly after the flowers drop off, the plant produces a small, disc-shaped fruit with segments that resembles a wheel of cheese about 1/4 inch across (and they are, in fact, referred to as cheeses).

PhotobucketAll parts of the plant are edible, nutritious and slightly mucilaginous, much like okra, to which it is related.  The leaves and stems are delicious raw or lightly cooked and can be used to thicken soups, the fruit has a pleasant gummy quality, and the root can be boiled until translucent and eaten like a vegetable. If you can find the roots in sufficient quantity, you might be able to use them as people have traditionally used marshmallow roots-- to make candy. To do this, peel the root, slice it and boil in just enough simple syrup to cover. The root will first turn translucent and then virtually melt away. The liquid should be reasonably thick at this point and, after straining any remaining solids, can be dropped by the spoonful onto waxed paper to dry or whipped into a chiffon-like confection, perhaps with some fruit folded in. (Right: Common Mallow Leaf by wide eyed lib)

Marshmallow, should you find it, has somewhat hairy leaves that extend to a point and is a more upright plant in general. The flowers and fruits are very similar to common mallow, but about twice as large. Because salt marshes are fragile ecosystems and generally under threat, please don't harvest any roots. Instead, if you'd like to make the classic confection, most health food stores sell dried marshmallow root that works just as well, without the extra work and potential environmental damage.

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A common form of the large and meandering mint family, ground ivy, also known as gill-over-the-ground, is a fragrant, trailing or upright plant with square stems and round to heart-shaped, prettily scalloped leaves that range from about 1/4 of an inch to a full inch in size. It loves meadows, lawns, walls and the verges of roads, as well as lots of sun, and grows throughout Southern Canada and the U.S., with the exceptions of Hawaii and the drier Southwestern states. Because of its ability to grow roots from any place where a leaf stalk meets a stem, it can either grow upright or trail along the ground.  In mid-Spring, ground ivy develops tiny, dark purple flowers only about 1/4 of an inch across that superficially resemble small violets.  When crushed, the leaves smell strongly of basil. (Above: Ground Ivy by wide eyed lib)

PhotobucketLike many culinary herbs, it's overpowering by itself but its pungent basil-meets-mint flavor would enhance any number of dishes, from salads to soups to sauces. It's delicious paired with tomato, for instance, or used in pesto. I bet it would also be delicious with fish. It makes an outstanding herbal tea with diuretic and cough suppressing properties. The leaves are high in vitamin C and have been used in beer brewing and as a poultice for wounds and sores. (Right: Ground Ivy Flower by wide eyed lib)

Unfortunately, its best qualities are lost if it's frozen or dried, so ground ivy isn't easily stored. Luckily it's available fresh in a sunny spot near you from early Spring until at least the first frost.

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PhotobucketThe final plant for today, and just in the nick of time for the tail end of the season, is the fiddlehead fern.  Fiddleheads are not a particular type of fern but rather the name for all immature, tightly scrolled ferns or bracken in early to mid-Spring. The fiddleheads of bracken are shaped like a claw, with a few curls at the top and a single curl an inch or so lower, while fern fiddleheads are a single, tightly coiled spiral, like the carvings on the head of a violin or fiddle (thus, fiddleheads). The particular kind I harvest is called the ostrich fern because its upright fronds resemble ostrich plumes. The sterile fronds of the ostrich fern are large and flexible, while the fertile fronds are upright, somewhat stiff and commonly persist over winter so that you can sometimes use them to locate fiddleheads the following Spring. (Left: Ostrich Fiddlehead Ferns by wide eyed lib)

There are no poisonous fiddleheads; however, some ferns or bracken produce fiddleheads that are tough or have a papery coating that is difficult to remove and others are too bitter to be enjoyable. Once unfurled, however, all ferns and bracken are poisonous, so it's important to harvest early. Caution: studies in Japan of people who eat commercial bracken fiddleheads year-round have linked eating bracken fiddleheads with stomach cancer. "Wildman" Steve Brill has this to say on the issue:

Nevertheless, I wouldn't be afraid of eating reasonable quantities of wild [bracken] fiddleheads during their short season.

As always, caveat forager, and if the idea makes you uncomfortable, look for fiddlehead ferns instead.

Ostrich Fern Pictures, Images and PhotosFiddleheads are one of the wild edibles that can take a few seasons to harvest. Unless someone you know already has a location staked out, it's best to visit a few wet, shady places to find them in the summer when their feathery fronds are easiest to identify and mentally mark the spot so that you can come back early the next Spring to harvest them. (Right: Ostrich Ferns by SwimmingJewel, courtesy of Photobucket)

If you are lucky enough to find such a spot, please only harvest about a third of the fiddleheads from any one plant, and only harvest from half of the plants there. Keep in mind that you are unlikely to be the only person harvesting from that location, and if you see that an area has already been harvested, it's best to find another location or try a little earlier next year. These precautions will ensure that the ferns survive, not only for the fern's sake but also so that they can continue to offer us this delicious Spring vegetable for years to come.

Fiddleheads taste a little like slightly bitter asparagus and should be cooked before being eaten. Although they're good in soups and casseroles, they're especially delicious lightly sauteed in butter. Bon appetit!


If you're interested in foraging and missed the earlier diaries in the series, you can click here for the previous 6 installments. As always, please feel free to post photos in the comments and I'll do my best to help identify what you've foraged. (And if you find any errors, let me know.)

Here are some helpful foraging resources:

"Wildman" Steve Brill's site covers many edibles and includes nice drawings.

"Green" Deane Jordan's site is quite comprehensive and has color photos and stories about many plants.

Green Deane's foraging how-to clips on youtube each cover a single plant in reassuring detail.

Linda Runyon's site features only a few plants but has great deals on her dvd, wild cards and books (check out the package deals in particular).

Steve Brill's book, Identifying and Harvesting Edible and Medicinal Plants in Wild (and Not So Wild) Places is my primary foraging guide. (Read reviews here, but if you're feeling generous, please buy from Steve's website.)

Linda Runyon's book The Essential Wild Food Survival Guide contains especially detailed information about nutritional content and how to store and preserve wild foods.

Steve Brill also offers guided foraging tours in NYC-area parks. Details and contact info are on his website.

Finally, the USDA plants database is a great place to look up info on all sorts of plants.

See you next Sunday!

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Originally posted to wide-eyed wanderings on Sun May 03, 2009 at 01:41 PM PDT.

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Comment Preferences

  •  Tips for everything green (28+ / 0-)

    and all the wild edibles that surround us!

    "You guys don't understand. You've already lost. My generation doesn't care."--Kate Gronstal, on marriage equality

    by wide eyed lib on Sun May 03, 2009 at 01:42:42 PM PDT

  •  Hey, thanks for the information! (7+ / 0-)

    I think I'm going to have to try some Creeping Charlie (ground ivy) pesto!  I have an area where I took out the lawn by covering it with 6" of wood mulch, but in the past couple of years, the mulch has pretty much turned into humus, and ground ivy has moved in, along with other things that I planted on purpose.

    I also didn't know I could eat curly dock leaves.  I'll have to try that.

    Universal Health Care - it's coming, but not soon enough!

    by DrFood on Sun May 03, 2009 at 02:04:11 PM PDT

  •  As always, informative (10+ / 0-)

    and tipped and recommended.  Later on in the summer, you ought to do one on how to recognize berries.   I was pretty surprised two years ago, when I was visiting my sister at a campground.  There were blueberry bushes, raspberries and blackberries all over, and not a single person (except my sister and myself) going after them.  I know when I was a kid, that would have been considered the motherlode.  

    I think that I have had enough of you telling me how things will be. Today I choose a new way to go ... and it goes through you!

    by Norbrook on Sun May 03, 2009 at 02:25:41 PM PDT

    •  what about mulberries???? (7+ / 0-)

      most people have no idea they are edible - and SO delicious!

      •  Never fear! I plan to cover all kinds of berries (6+ / 0-)

        as they ripen, including mulberries. There's a great park near me with tons of mulberry bushes, both red and white.

        It's astonishing to me how many people don't recognize in the wild fruits that they buy all the time in the grocery store. People stare when I eat wild grapes or blueberries, but I just stare back. Occasionally someone will be interested, and then I'm happy to show them how to recognize certain plants.

        "You guys don't understand. You've already lost. My generation doesn't care."--Kate Gronstal, on marriage equality

        by wide eyed lib on Sun May 03, 2009 at 02:31:46 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  Don't forget to include... (4+ / 0-)

          Service Berries. They grow on a plant that most folks around where I live call "Shad Blow" (because it blooms when the Shad are running).

          My daughter bought some plants called "Saskatchewan Blueberries" that are really service berries. She was a bit disappointed at first, but she won't be when they start producing.

          "I was so easy to defeat, I was so easy to control, I didn't even know there was a war." -9.75, -8.41

          by RonV on Sun May 03, 2009 at 04:34:40 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

        •  And (1+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          wide eyed lib

          wineberries an envasive that I am not unhappy to have on my property.

          May we all find that person to love, and then be able to celebrate it in front of the world legally. -brillig

          by Audri on Mon May 04, 2009 at 09:10:52 AM PDT

          [ Parent ]

          •  It was only late last year that I became aware (1+ / 0-)
            Recommended by:

            that there's a difference between raspberries and wineberries-- I'd previously just eaten them all indiscrimately (and happily).

            I used to rent a little house with a blackberry bramble in the back. It was maybe 5 square feet in an area of the yard that was steeply sloped and rocky (including some bedrock). We trimmed the bramble now and again but otherwise let it be. We loved being able to gather a few berries for our cereal on late summer mornings, especially since that portion of the yard was otherwise not particularly useful.

            One day I came home and the bramble had been leveled. Turns out my landlord thought it was an eyesore, even though it was in the backyard and barely visible from the road. He waited til we were at work because he knew we would have objected. It was one of many jerky things he did that caused us to leave.

            Gaia got revenge, though; what grew back fastest was poison ivy and some invasive, tree-destroying, non-useful vines that shaded out or choked out everything else. Couldn't have happened to a nicer guy. :)

            "You guys don't understand. You've already lost. My generation doesn't care."--Kate Gronstal, on marriage equality

            by wide eyed lib on Mon May 04, 2009 at 09:46:59 AM PDT

            [ Parent ]

  •  i am the worlds cheapest murderer... (6+ / 0-)

    .... just put a plate of fiddleheads in front of me!!!  ;-)

    {especially good if they are pickled - YUM!!!!!!!!!!!!}

  •  you left out the classic (6+ / 0-)

    stalking the wild asparagus by eull gibbons, check, cause some of the plants he collected are now endangered, but great source of recipes and philosophy, and fun to read.

    I was once a treehouse, I lived in a cake, but I never saw the way the orange slayed the rake... The Llama Song.

    by farmerchuck on Sun May 03, 2009 at 02:36:24 PM PDT

    •  I don't have good old Euell (6+ / 0-)

      on the resources list because his book isn't all that helpful for actually foraging unless you already know those particular plants. Not all of the plants he discusses have line drawings and the ones that do are pretty crude. I think it's a great book inspirationally, but it's definitely not a field guide.

      However, last week I made knotweed pie using his recipe (with the additions of salt and vanilla extract) and it was outstanding! I'm going to try a couple of other recipes, and if they're as good, I'll add him to the list.

      Knotweed pie:

      "You guys don't understand. You've already lost. My generation doesn't care."--Kate Gronstal, on marriage equality

      by wide eyed lib on Sun May 03, 2009 at 02:57:13 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  All of those grow here (8+ / 0-)

    on my property. But not only are they good eats, they are all medicinal to boot.

    Curly dock roots are used medicinally as an astringent, tonic, and laxative. It is considered a highly effective blood cleanser and is used to assist the body in eliminating heavy metals and to treat other hepatic disorders. With the cautions you mentioned above re; oxalic acid.

    Marsh Mallow is used as a gargle to treat mouth and throat ulcers. The flowers are also used as tonic for the skin.

    Ground Ivy is aka All-heal. And for good reason:

    Used as a medicine for centuries on just about every continent in the world, for a wide variety of ailments, Heal-All has been viewed by herbalists as something of a panacea. It does however have some medicinal uses that are constant. The plants most useful constituents are Betulinic acid, D-Camphor, Delphinidin, Hyperoside, Manganese, Oleanolic acid, Rosmarinic acid, Rutin, Ursolic acid, various Saponins and Tannins. The whole plant is medicinal as alterative, antibacterial, antipyretic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, febrifuge, hypotensive, stomachic, styptic, tonic, vermifuge and vulnerary. A cold water infusion of the freshly chopped or dried and powdered leaves is a very tasty and refreshing beverage, weak infusion of the plant is an excellent medicinal eye wash for sties and pinkeye. It is taken internally as a medicinal tea in the treatment of fevers, diarrhoea, sore mouth and throat, internal bleeding, and weaknesses of the liver and heart.

    The fiddlehead, indeed all of the fern, is soothing for nettle stings. Just rub it over the area. Interestingly, they two plants often grow near one another....

    Thanks for a great diary and an idea for a salad for tonight's dinner ;)

    As long as prejudice exists in this country - in this world - we are all its victims. ~~ Keith Olbermann

    by Purple Priestess on Sun May 03, 2009 at 02:47:42 PM PDT

    •  Thanks for chiming in on the medicinal qualities (4+ / 0-)

      I try to give the broad outlines of a plant's usefulness, but there's so much to cover.

      Where's the ground ivy quote from? Apart from a replica of a 19th century herbal, I don't have a reference book that goes into great detail about the medicinal properties of plants. Do you have one you could recommend?


      "You guys don't understand. You've already lost. My generation doesn't care."--Kate Gronstal, on marriage equality

      by wide eyed lib on Sun May 03, 2009 at 03:01:31 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  I've got ground ivy all over (4+ / 0-)

    right now. I pulled a bunch of it early in the spring but I've got tons of the pretty purple flowers. I've even got some of them in a wild bouquet on my dining room table--I'm going to go try them! Thanks!

    There's a reason Democrats won massively the last two cycles, and it wasn't because people were desperate for "bipartisanship". --kos

    by Debby on Sun May 03, 2009 at 04:27:42 PM PDT

  •  Another great diary... (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Larsstephens, wide eyed lib

    and another great discussion.

    Thanks again.

    "I was so easy to defeat, I was so easy to control, I didn't even know there was a war." -9.75, -8.41

    by RonV on Sun May 03, 2009 at 04:40:56 PM PDT

  •  What a wonderful diary (3+ / 0-)

    Wish you lived in my area (northern Virginia) and could lead "foraging" walks.  I love the idea of being self-sufficient by knowing which edibles grow in the wild.  I just read "My Side of the Mountain" and was enraptured!  I suspect it's fiction, not a true story, but what a story!

    Equal "rites" for ALL Americans!

    by Diana in NoVa on Sun May 03, 2009 at 05:02:18 PM PDT

    •  C'mon back next week (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      historys mysteries, Larsstephens

      and also check out my earlier diaries if you're interested in more of this. This is the 7th in a series that I hope to continue until late November.

      My Side of the Mountain is about the runaway, right? I seem to remember a raccoon, too. Great book. On Saturday I was rambling around in a wooded area and came across a baby raccoon up sleeping in the crook of a tree. Between all the leaves and how high up he was, it was challenging trying to get a photo, but I just managed.


      "You guys don't understand. You've already lost. My generation doesn't care."--Kate Gronstal, on marriage equality

      by wide eyed lib on Sun May 03, 2009 at 05:18:32 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  My favorite is nearing edibility! (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Larsstephens, wide eyed lib

    Yay for the milkweed. Shoots are about 2 inches. Another day or 2, and I'll be in forager heaven.

  •  Wild grape leaves are (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Larsstephens, wide eyed lib

    just starting to pop in eastern Iowa.  In a couple weeks, I'll begin to harvest in anticipation of a big pot of stuffed grape leaves.  It's one of those "comfort foods" from my youth.  I do freeze leaves, but there's nothing like the first batch with fresh, tender leaves in the spring!

    Should be morel season pretty soon, too, though I don't eat 'shrooms.  I've only ever found two of them and those by accident.  I know my choir members will be talking about hiking the woods soon.  Of course, they will not share where they are hiking :-)

    -7.62, -7.28 "Hold fast to dreams, for if dreams die, life is a broken winged bird that cannot fly." -Langston Hughes

    by luckylizard on Sun May 03, 2009 at 07:00:08 PM PDT

    •  Nobody shares their secret morel spots :) (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      luckylizard, Larsstephens

      Those are more valuable than gold.

      I haven't seen grape leaves yet, but there's a park a bit north of me that has them in abundance. I used to buy them canned but now there's no need. (Just like I don't buy chives anymore. You can't walk 2 feet without tripping over field garlic.)

      I love the classic Greek stuffing with rice, pinenuts and currents and lots of garlicky yogurt for dipping, but really anything that can be stuffed in a pepper or a tomato can be put in a grape leaf.

      "You guys don't understand. You've already lost. My generation doesn't care."--Kate Gronstal, on marriage equality

      by wide eyed lib on Sun May 03, 2009 at 07:07:24 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  I do Lebanese. (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        Larsstephens, wide eyed lib

        Rice, lamb, pinenuts, mint, cinnamon, salt.  Slather big gobs of yogurt over them and fill myself to overflowing.  I tend to leave out the meat now.  I don't like to touch it and it has to be done just so.

        My grandparents used to buy a leg of lamb and trim it clean of fat and membranes.  Then it was ground twice, once coarse, once fine.  That's way too much meat handling for me.  Now I just throw in extra pinenuts.  Damn, my mouth is watering :-)

        -7.62, -7.28 "Hold fast to dreams, for if dreams die, life is a broken winged bird that cannot fly." -Langston Hughes

        by luckylizard on Sun May 03, 2009 at 07:18:13 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

  •  This is wonderful ... (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Larsstephens, wide eyed lib

    I want something like Brill's tour in the WDC area (NVA?) as I have great regrets about my 'species blindness' when it comes to botany / plants.  I certainly don't do a good job when trying to work from books / photos ...

    Your series is wonderful, by the way.  Thank you.

    •  I think there's a cascading effect (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Audri, A Siegel, Larsstephens

      where once you start to recognize a few things visually and read the descriptions while you're looking a live specimen, the descriptions start to make more sense and you start to see plants a little differently. I was terrified about all the terminology when I started. (If axils and basal rosettes and toothed margins aren't scary enough, there's always the Latin. And the descriptions of leaf shapes are almost as convoluted as wine descriptors like "leather" or "barnyard.")

      It really does start to sink in, though. You just have to keep trying and be patient.

      If you think you've identified something, take a picture and post it next week. I keep offering to help people ID things, and no one ever takes me up on it. :)

      Another idea is to work backwards. Take a plant (any plant) and figure out how to describe it. Are the leaves opposite, alternate, whorled or some other configuration? What the general shape (no need to be super precise)? Are there teeth or lobes on the leaves? Are they shiny, matte or something inbetween? Are there any characteristics that make the leaves distinctive on the reverse side? Are there hairs on either the leaves or the stems? If there are flowers, fruits or seeds, what are their characteristics? If you can draw, that's another way to develop those skills.

      I don't think many people are still reading this, but if you drop by earlier next week and ask if anyone knows of foraging tours in your area, someone might have some info.

      If all else fails, a weekend in NYC might be nice. :)

      "You guys don't understand. You've already lost. My generation doesn't care."--Kate Gronstal, on marriage equality

      by wide eyed lib on Sun May 03, 2009 at 07:48:26 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

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