Skip to main content

I've gotten heavily into the comment threads of a few bicycle-oriented essays here recently, and got to thinking that with all these comments I've added to them, I could probably come up with an essay or two on the subject. I decided to start with the deceptively simple subject of changing a bicycle tube. That's what you're really doing, changing a tube...but we think of it as changing a tire, hence the title of this essay.

Your average bicycle repair staffer can change a bicycle tube in a few minutes, and it's not just because of having that handy rack to set the bike up on. There are a number of steps involved, and none of them take much time or are very complicated, but if you know them all, you're much more likely to safely change your tube and have it stay solid for some time to come. But it takes a bit of practice to get handy and fast at all of this.

However, knowing how to change the tube isn't all there is to it. Knowing how to protect the tube is also important.

I'll try to take a shot at all of this here, and will of course greatly appreciate any feedback or corrections with regards to my technique and information.

Protecting the tube

  1. Types of tubes

Cheap tubes, better tubes, thorn-resistant tubes, solid rubber tubes.

Solid rubber tubes are not going to give you an easy ride, but they are the last word in fool-proof. They probably don't come in all sizes of wheel diameter, but I've often thought of buying a standard 26" wheel diameter bike and installing them, just to have a bike that's more foolproof here where I have a lot of trouble with thorns (more below about thorns).

Thorn-resistant tubes may help a bit; basically they're tubes with slightly thicker rubber. I haven't been all that impressed with them, though.

Cheap tubes I stay away from. A good standard tube with a good strong valve that won't break easily, is what I look for. You can get tubes with Schrader valves or Presta valves; tubes with Presta valves may leak less; I've never been clear what the advantage was there. However, if you want to use Slime (tire sealant) and you get a bike that requires Presta valve tubes, and you can't unscrew the valve core, then you'll have more trouble using the slime, unless you buy pre-Slimed tubes. You can inject Slime directly into the wider, open-mouthed Schrader valve, but the Presta valve must have its core removed, and not all Presta valve tubes have unscrewable valve cores, and those not available in all sizes.

Your bicycle's wheels will be drilled for Presta or Schrader valves. The latter are the larger holes. Presta valves are thinner and have a little screw-on thing at the end that helps to seal the valve.

Schrader valves are more common with less expensive bicycles. Sometimes people redrill Presta wheels to fit Schrader valves.

In any case, flat tires can be a result of valve problems as much as punctures, so it's good to have your valve be (a) good quality, well made, and (b) stabilized and centered, as your bike tube will potentially shift slightly while riding and put stress on the valve.

  1. Types of tires

I like a tire with a heavy tread, that won't wear down fast, as I tend to use my tires a little longer than I should. I also like higher-end tires with Kevlar linings. They're worth the investment. In some cases, for some tires, there may even be better, more high-tech linings around. Keep this in mind when you buy your bike - wheels with a 26" diameter are pretty easy to buy parts for. That's about the standard diameter. I have a lovely 28" diameter wheel bike, but there are only so many kinds of tubes and tires I can find for it.

I also ideally like a "hybrid" bike with semi-mountain bike tires, but not really wide. About halfway between a touring bike and a mountain bike. I find this ideal for the street, as the tires have reasonable traction and don't get caught up too easily in crevices (grates, railroad tracks, etc) but at the same time aren't overly high-friction.

  1. Tire liners

These are dense plastic strips you put between your tubes and the tire. I really recommend them if you live where there are a lot of bad thorns or other really hard and sharp road debris. I'm not really sure what they're made of, but they're pretty standard and very tough. I've never seen anything go through them; my problems with punctures are with sharp pointed objects that get into the tire (and then puncture the tube) above the liner, which is barely an inch wide and only covers the bottom inside of the tire.

  1. Slime

Slime is tire sealant; this is a trademarked product, and I thusly link their site here. Some people swear by it, others don't find it useful. It does pick up the weight in your tire, and it does go bad after maybe a year or so. However, it does work, to at least some extent, with smaller punctures.

I would recommend using it by hand more than buying pre-slimed tubes, though, unless the Slime people have started buying tubes with better quality valves than they were a couple of years back. It is, though, an inventive and useful product, if used wisely. If I was riding a bike with Schrader valves, I'd definitely use it. But I like a good quality light tube, and the Slime people were using lousy quality tubes for their light product a couple years back (I read other complaints about this on teh net) and the valves were crappy. I hope they've fixed that. However, their heavier pre-Slimed tubes, though a bit pricey, were very reliable in my experience, but I found them hard to obtain after awhile, and I just got into buying good tubes, using tire liners, etc. I do have 28" wheels, as I said, so it's not always that easy to find parts. I don't want to diss Slime at all, it's just a matter of combining it with good tubes.

  1. Technique

Okay, here's where we get into how to change a tire. First, either you have quick wheel release levers or not. If you don't, get a couple of good adjustable wrenches (or sized crescent wrenches) for each nut on either side of the axle. Don't just try to remove the wheel by unscrewing the nut on one side; it will hang up on the other side. Go back and forth to gently remove the wheel.

Okay, now you have the wheel off. What you need now is a set of three plastic tire levers, not screwdrivers or other sharp things. Tire levers have an angled flat end that hooks into and under the rim of the tire, and then you pull out and back, and hook the other (curled) end onto a spoke.

Then you move a bit down the tire and do it again with the next tire lever, and walk it down or back from the other side with the third one.

I have best luck starting around the valve, and I usually only need two to get the rim free, but sometimes need the third one.

Once you get enough of the rim out, you can pretty much extricate the rest of the tire with your fingers.

I won't go into patching tubes here because I have no experience with that. But if you are putting in a new tube, first go over the inside of the tire by hand, look for any sharp intrusions. Use a big needle or something similar to pick them out, if necessary.

Replace your tire liner, which I strongly recommend you invest in, and then dust the inside of the tire & liner with baby powder. This will help keep the new tube from getting hung up, since it will shift slightly as you inflate it and start using it, especially if the tire assembly gets hot.

When you put in the new tube, start by putting the valve loosely into the hole in the wheel. If you have a Presta valve, put on the valve ring but only loosely. In either case, seat the valve carefully, make sure the tube is well lined up with the wheel's valve hole.

Then take your bike pump (I recommend getting a good floor-standing pump, and probably a good little lightweight one for travel) and inflate the tube loosely. This will help you seat it in the tire and within the rim of the wheel, and help keep the tube from having any flattened edges getting caught up between the wheel rim and the tire rim.

Then you work the tire and tube onto the wheel. I don't use my tire levers much at that point but beginners may find them useful.

Now you are ready to test your seating. Inflate the tube a bit more, and check and work around the rims. Make sure that there is no bit of the tube caught between the wheel and the rim of the tire. If you're new at this, it doesn't hurt to let some air back out of the tire and retry it, if you didn't get the tube seated right within the tire and the rim on the first try. You don't want a "pinch flat." You can tell when you're risking one, btw, if you take your bike out and it starts bumping, that's a sign that you didn't seat the tube right.

  1. Things that pierce tubes and tires how to avoid them

Wire. Hard to avoid that, and it's one of the worst, because a bad piece of wire can get up into your sidewalls and thus around your plastic tire liners, and right through some of the built in tire lining in the tires themselves and then into the tubes.

Goatheads. Similar to wire. Tribulus terrestris is actually a medicinal plant, and has all sorts of other fascinating history as well; but its seedheads are much hated by bicyclists, as these "caltrops" (another common name for T. terrestris (because of their caltrop-like thorned structure) have extremely strong little thorns that can get through all sorts of things...including bike tires, including Kevlar lined ones, in my experience.

How to avoid goatheads and wire: ride out away from the gutter, especially during goathead season (latish summer). Wire is more hit or miss, but if you live where Tribulus is happy, goatheads are guaranteed. Note that they will wash out of roadsides during heavy rains, so be especially careful then. I like to stay off the roads a bit then, when I can, until the automobile tires pick them up (those tires are too thick for goatheads to pierce.)

I hope this is a helpful piece. I hope other people can add some comments with suggestions about things I missed or didn't know about. Thanks in advance, and happy bicycling!

Miep

Originally posted to mieprowan on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 01:50 AM PST.

EMAIL TO A FRIEND X
Your Email has been sent.
You must add at least one tag to this diary before publishing it.

Add keywords that describe this diary. Separate multiple keywords with commas.
Tagging tips - Search For Tags - Browse For Tags

?

More Tagging tips:

A tag is a way to search for this diary. If someone is searching for "Barack Obama," is this a diary they'd be trying to find?

Use a person's full name, without any title. Senator Obama may become President Obama, and Michelle Obama might run for office.

If your diary covers an election or elected official, use election tags, which are generally the state abbreviation followed by the office. CA-01 is the first district House seat. CA-Sen covers both senate races. NY-GOV covers the New York governor's race.

Tags do not compound: that is, "education reform" is a completely different tag from "education". A tag like "reform" alone is probably not meaningful.

Consider if one or more of these tags fits your diary: Civil Rights, Community, Congress, Culture, Economy, Education, Elections, Energy, Environment, Health Care, International, Labor, Law, Media, Meta, National Security, Science, Transportation, or White House. If your diary is specific to a state, consider adding the state (California, Texas, etc). Keep in mind, though, that there are many wonderful and important diaries that don't fit in any of these tags. Don't worry if yours doesn't.

You can add a private note to this diary when hotlisting it:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary from your hotlist?
Are you sure you want to remove your recommendation? You can only recommend a diary once, so you will not be able to re-recommend it afterwards.
Rescue this diary, and add a note:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary from Rescue?
Choose where to republish this diary. The diary will be added to the queue for that group. Publish it from the queue to make it appear.

You must be a member of a group to use this feature.

Add a quick update to your diary without changing the diary itself:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary?
(The diary will be removed from the site and returned to your drafts for further editing.)
(The diary will be removed.)
Are you sure you want to save these changes to the published diary?

Comment Preferences

  •  tips for knowing your vehicle (23+ / 0-)

    "Innumerable confusions and a feeling of despair invariably emerge in periods of great technological and cultural transition." - Marshall McLuhan

    by mieprowan on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 01:50:27 AM PST

  •  Sure, you could learn how to fix your own (10+ / 0-)

    bike or you could get this guy to help you.

    I stand by the truth, that way I don't have to be near any Republicans.

    by ontheleftcoast on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 02:02:32 AM PST

  •  Miep: bitchen' diary! (4+ / 0-)

    Practical stuff! On my Giant mountain bike, even if I don't get a flat, I practice how fast I can change my tire or tube out every couple months, cuz when it really happens, I might be running out of daylight, or miles away from home, or some shit. About twice a year, I practice on my old Harley or Indian motorcycle, because it sucks even more when you are on a highway and you're not dialed in like you should have been! "Be Prepared"...old wise man once said to the two-wheeler! Thanks, SSK!

    Where Kabuki ends, Samurai begins.

    by Santa Susanna Kid on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 02:17:46 AM PST

  •  great diary (5+ / 0-)

    I totally depend on my bikes to function but I must admit (to my shame) that I cant even repair them myself anymore! I basically decided that its worth paying a shop to do that (after all they know what to do much better than I ever could) so now I work with a number of bikes making sure that I always have a spare one to use while the other is in hospital :)

    but people laugh at me all the time because repair your own flattened tires is about as basic a cultural technique as they come here ... and I did it when I was young ... and it works as you describe it :) But I have taken to ride racing bikes whenever possible because I have no mind anymore for having to work against the bike as well as the elements and with those I just cant do it anymore. Call it laziness. I dont know. But a good bike shouldnt be punctured by thorns!

    Ici s´arrète la loi.

    by marsanges on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 02:23:32 AM PST

    •  thanks (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      RunawayRose, bamabikeguy

      but geez marsanges these aren't just ANY thorns! These things are scary! Go through Kevlar! Bad!!!

      I got you on wanting to have a few bikes and one in the shop to get really fine-tuned, though. A good bike repair person will have all the right tools and equipment and expertise, and volume discounts on parts. What's not to like?

      "Innumerable confusions and a feeling of despair invariably emerge in periods of great technological and cultural transition." - Marshall McLuhan

      by mieprowan on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 02:26:26 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  I hear ya! (6+ / 0-)

        I long ago decided that if I couldn't afford to pay someone to do it for me I didn't want it.  That goes for bikes, too.  Having two or more bikes in working condition allows you to ride when one is in the shop.  And as for getting greasy gunk on your hands while replacing a tube on the road, (Ahem) if you kept your chain clean you wouldn't have that problem.  And, please!  Patching tires is a) Easy as pie, b) A good skill to have and keep up on and c) What, you're gonna throw out a perfectly good tube just 'cause it has one little puncture?  Lissen, boy!  Back in my day you didn't throw out a tube until it was pretty much ALL PATCH!!  Except, of course, if you got a puncture right next to the valve; then there's no hope.  Keep on ridin'!!

        Liberal = We're all in this together
        Conservative = Every man for himself
        Who you gonna call?

  •  The last flat I had was in El Dorado, Ark (4+ / 0-)

    coming back from Colorado in 2006, and it was caused by the spoke end rubbing through the gasket, abrading my punctureproof tube.

    What I do now is wrap 4-5 layers of electrical tape over the rubber gasket.  Then I put 1 more layer of hospital tape, the little bit of friction keeps the valve stem from moving one way or the other.

    All my spokes are ziptied at the intersections, that keeps the wheels true.

    Serfa Survivor tires have 4 ply's, which eliminates the need for a tire liner. Cost $25.  I like using them especially on the rear wheel, and the Odessey tire on the front.

    Finally, the trick to putting in a tube is half inflate the tube before sticking the valve stem in the hole, and when you have it all together, check that the tire is properly seated.

    The key to being a good manager is keeping the people who hate me away from those who are still undecided. Casey Stengel

    by bamabikeguy on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 03:11:39 AM PST

    •  you're ahead of me (3+ / 0-)

      I think what you're saying is taping the inside of the wheel?

      I don't know what "ziptied" means.

      Any good recs for tires duly appreciated.

      Gotcha on inflating the tube a bit before trying to seat it, I did actually mention that in this essay!

      Seen your great essays here before; thought about you the other day when I ran into a guy at the filtered water dispenser at the grocery store. Guy was on a 3 wheel bike with two car batteries, plywood platform, two five gallon bottles. I complimented him excessively about his being ahead of the curve (all handmade! totally rocked!) We had a nice little conversation about the failings of the rest of the world; it was cool.

      "Innumerable confusions and a feeling of despair invariably emerge in periods of great technological and cultural transition." - Marshall McLuhan

      by mieprowan on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 03:20:14 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  Yep, over the rubber gasket. (3+ / 0-)

        In Arkansas I had electrical tape in the repair kit, that wheel is still on my red bike.

        The spokes intersect, according to the size of the wheel, 16-18 intersections on each side.

        BMX competitors weld the spoke intersections, or copper wire them, but smallest zip ties are cheapest and fastest.

        When you finish, you will feel the wheel stiffen, and hitting a pothole won't affect you as much.

        Oh, and $6 slimed tubes proved to be a fraud.

        Even the $10 slimed/punctureproofs had weak seams (talking about the green boxed tubes in big box stores).  

        $12 Pyramid punctureproofs is what I buy from my bikeshop guy.

        Fluke tire mishaps may occur.

        Project on the carport is a 4 wheeled 2 passenger Rhoadescar, for a couple over in Blount Co.  Putting a chain driven kit on it, should have it running 15 mph about mid month.

        The key to being a good manager is keeping the people who hate me away from those who are still undecided. Casey Stengel

        by bamabikeguy on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 03:28:08 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

        •  thanks (3+ / 0-)

          I don't understand all of it, but I get some gist from a fair piece.

          Appreciate your dropping in.

          If I might ask a question; what makes the Pyramid punctureproofs, punctureproof?

          "Innumerable confusions and a feeling of despair invariably emerge in periods of great technological and cultural transition." - Marshall McLuhan

          by mieprowan on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 03:37:25 AM PST

          [ Parent ]

          •  Ooooops, I forgot I got a flat on the Mobile trip (3+ / 0-)

            in 2007, using doubled up duct tape (I didn't know about tire lining back then, didn't discover the Serfa tire until last March.)

            Here's pix of trying to build the indestructible wheel:

            http://www.motoredbikes.com/...

            Pyramids have never failed me at the seams, the slime brand punctureproof was what was on that Mobile flat, and it was split about 6-8 inches, right along that seam.

            The key to being a good manager is keeping the people who hate me away from those who are still undecided. Casey Stengel

            by bamabikeguy on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 03:46:21 AM PST

            [ Parent ]

            •  I'm really glad you stopped by this essay (1+ / 0-)
              Recommended by:
              AllisonInSeattle

              I was hoping you would. You and some of the other commenters like SSK are half the essay here! This is great and exactly what I was hoping for; all these suggestions are going to be so helpful and will likely really improve the quality of my life, as someone who does not drive. Thank you all so much.

              "Innumerable confusions and a feeling of despair invariably emerge in periods of great technological and cultural transition." - Marshall McLuhan

              by mieprowan on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 05:19:25 PM PST

              [ Parent ]

    •  Electrical tape ? (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      AllisonInSeattle, mieprowan

      Strapping tape !!!
      http://www.google.com/...

      Japan uses 1/2 as much energy per capita as the U.S. , conservation works .

      by indycam on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 08:01:21 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  great comments, considering I posted this (3+ / 0-)

    in the middle of the night.

    Thanks to all.

    Now I can keep this all on hand to link to people, which is also very cool.

    Much appreciated.

    "Innumerable confusions and a feeling of despair invariably emerge in periods of great technological and cultural transition." - Marshall McLuhan

    by mieprowan on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 03:57:59 AM PST

  •  Cool diary, Miep. I likes me (5+ / 0-)

    a piece now and then that'll take ya off the beaten path without going flat.

    Very few things happen at the right time, and the rest do not happen at all: the conscientious historian will correct these defects. -Herodotus

    by TerribleTom on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 05:33:09 AM PST

  •  I keep a spare tube, tire levers, and a multitool (4+ / 0-)

    in a bag on the bike. If you've ever had a flat 10 miles from home, you would too. :)

    "I think a basic principle of our Constitution is nobody above the law" -Obama

    by heart of a quince on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 05:41:15 AM PST

    •  and a pump (2+ / 0-)

      I don't travel far these days, as I'd have to ride the highways and I'm not too happy about doing that. But yes, you're absolutely right. A cell phone isn't a bad idea either, in case you get into some trouble you can't repair your way out of.

      "Innumerable confusions and a feeling of despair invariably emerge in periods of great technological and cultural transition." - Marshall McLuhan

      by mieprowan on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 04:55:02 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  and a pump! (0+ / 0-)

        I just forgot that on the list. I have one of those little tiny pumps that suck to use, but are priceless when you get a flat. :)

        I pretty much always have a cell phone on me these days.

        "I think a basic principle of our Constitution is nobody above the law" -Obama

        by heart of a quince on Sun Jan 10, 2010 at 05:25:22 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

  •  thanks miep, I needed this ..hotlisted! nt (3+ / 0-)
  •  very useful (3+ / 0-)

    You might want to add a tag for "learning" so it will receive the attention it deserves.

  •  If you know where the leak is (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    AllisonInSeattle, mieprowan

    flop the bike over on its side ,
    pull the bead off the rim at the leak ,
    pull the just enough of the tube out to get to the leak ,
    Put a patch on the leak ,
    tuck the tube back in ,
    re do the bead on to the rim ,
    inflate .
    No need to remove the wheel from the bike ,
    its quicker / cleaner and much less work .
    If you want to put a product inside the tube , slime is not the product you want .
    http://www.ultraseal.com/...
    http://www.ride-on.com/

    Japan uses 1/2 as much energy per capita as the U.S. , conservation works .

    by indycam on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 08:08:56 AM PST

    •  thanks, I did not know there were other kinds of (0+ / 0-)

      tire sealants.

      I'm not in the habit of patching tubes. I think I tried it in the past and just wasn't very good at it, because I don't recollect it working very well. Also you can't patch a split or a bad valve, so it's helpful to know how to do the whole thing.

      But thank you for posting that, it's a good addition to the piece. Appreciated.

      "Innumerable confusions and a feeling of despair invariably emerge in periods of great technological and cultural transition." - Marshall McLuhan

      by mieprowan on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 04:53:44 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  Revised statement of techniques (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    AllisonInSeattle, mieprowan

    In italics

    Okay, now you have the wheel off. What you need now is a set of three plastic tire levers, not screwdrivers or other sharp things. Tire levers have an angled flat end that hooks into and under the rim of the tire, and then you pull out and back, and hook the other (curled) end onto a spoke.  Before you attack the tire with tire levers, squeeze the tire all around its circumference, to make sure that the bead of the tire has fully separated from the inside of the rime all the way around the wheel.  If it has, you may well be able to remove the tire without the use of tire levers by pinching the tire and forcing the beads down onto the spoke nipples on one side of the wheel, and then lifting one bead over the rim on the other side of the wheel.

    Then you move a bit down the tire and do it again with the next tire lever, and walk it down or back from the other side with the third one.

    * * *

    Then you work the tire and tube onto the wheel. I don't use my tire levers much at that point but beginners may find them useful. The above pinch-and-force-down-onto-the-spoke-nipples move can also help avoid the use of tire levers and the accompanying risk of damage to the tube.  On the very rare occasions when tire levers are absolutely necessary, a little spit on the end (just a little) will ease the action and help prevent pinches.

    * * *

    Now you are ready to test your seating. Inflate the tube a bit more, and check and work around the rims. Make sure that there is no bit of the tube caught between the wheel and the rim of the tire.  Also, check to see that the tire is mounted concentrically to the rim-- in other words, that an approximately equal amount of tire sidewall is visible no matter where you look.  There is usually a line molded onto the sidewall of the tire to help you do this.  In the old days, with just a few sizes of wheel and tire, the seating was often perfect from the go, but with the profusion of different rims types and sizes, and the multiplicity of different tire styles, this definitely needs to be looked at.

    Their real God is money-- Jesus just drives the armored car, and his hat is made in China. © 2009 All Rights Reserved

    by oblomov on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 08:59:07 AM PST

    •  thanks (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      AllisonInSeattle

      Some tires seem to be easier to work with than others. I do note that bike mechanics don't use tire levers. But also it may be simply a matter of how strong one's hands are.

      What you describe about checking to see if the tire is mounted concentrically to the rim is well-described, better than I did...that's part of making sure you don't have the tube pinched somewhere.

      "Innumerable confusions and a feeling of despair invariably emerge in periods of great technological and cultural transition." - Marshall McLuhan

      by mieprowan on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 04:50:16 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  I'm looking for 24" [540mm] wheelchair tires.. (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    AllisonInSeattle, mieprowan

    schwalbe makes good ones, but I'd like more choices, like Continental tubeless or Vittoria

    The best criticism of the bad is the practice of the better.

    by Zacapoet on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 10:00:29 AM PST

  •  wow Miep, this AWESOME! (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    AllisonInSeattle, mieprowan

    I admit I've gotten lazy since living in SF where there are bike shops at every corner and you can have your flat fixed for 7 bucks. I used to have my little patch kit with me when I lived in the burbs, but no longer. Anyway, this is on my hotlist for sure!

    Live life. Not too fast. Mostly walk. (or bike)

    by citisven on Sat Jan 09, 2010 at 12:35:51 PM PST

  •  excellent, Miep!! (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    mieprowan

    ..sorry I missed the time to rec your diary!

    Great job!

    "Toleration is the greatest gift of the mind; it requires the same effort of the brain that it takes to balance oneself on a bicycle." -Helen Keller

    by ridemybike on Sun Jan 10, 2010 at 07:44:00 AM PST

Subscribe or Donate to support Daily Kos.

Click here for the mobile view of the site