There's a lot of discussion these days about education. It seems like education, or lack thereof, is at the root of all society's ills. Some say the fault is due to teachers, their unions, and protection of the teachers' incompetence.
Unions and teachers are also faulted for having summers off, earning undeserved high salaries, having excessive health insurance, being impossible to fire, sleeping at their desks, "driving expensive cars, wearing fancy clothes" (to quote another blogger) and using cell phones! Gee, I heard that any body can be a teacher, even a monkey, it's sooo easy. I guess they haven't heard what you have to do in some states, like Michigan, to become a teacher. Golly. They have to go to college and everything.
Seriously, there's much more to becoming a teacher and teaching than most people think. After aquiring a college bachelor's degree teacher candidates must jump through some hoops. Applying and paying for a teaching certificate is the first one. A qualified teacher hired in Michigan is on probation for 4 years. Within that time, a teacher may be dismissed if found to be unsuitable. Are there any other professions where the probation period is 4 years?
Teachers are then required to reapply and pay for certification, which is similar to a license, every 6 years. Within that time period, teachers must earn 6 grad level credits. This cycle continues for as long as the teacher is employed. Teachers in Michigan must also pass proficiency tests and are required to have taken specific reading courses.
I chose this profession and I love teaching second graders. I went into education with noble aims, to help children become better citizens, smarter people, and to have fulfilled lives. I don't doubt that I contribute to that scenario, but I never expected to be maligned by the citizenry I work so diligently to serve. I had hoped to have a satisfying career and be adequately compensated for it. First year teachers in my school district are paid $37,556 plus insurance. Not bad. I can live with that. Not like a first year state of Michigan senator or representative who earns $79,000 right off the bat. (Incidentally, they can retire after 6 years with full health insurance benefits. They are trying to take away vision and dental coverage from retiring teachers.)
I will receive a raise to the next pay level by taking an additional 18 grad level credits, at my own expense. I do get a step increase each year of $845. I can also earn a master's degree, usually 38-40 grad level credits, again at my own expense, in order to reach another pay level. If I desire to go up to the final pay level, I need to take and pay for 30 more grad level credits. My employment is contingent on having a current teaching certificate and positive evaluations from my building principal.
In addition to teaching curriculum, I teach character education, help settle arguments between students, soothe feelings, wipe tears and noses, collect lunch money, take attendance, coordinate schedules, make lesson plans, call parents, plan parties, field trips, complete standards-based report cards, hold parent teacher conferences and more. There are no texts or basals written to Michigan standards, so I need to supplement materials. What I love most about my job is working with 7 and 8 year old students, seeing their eyes light up when they "get it".
So, you think your're smarter than a second grader? Following is what a Michigan second grade public school teacher is responsible to teach. Can you do all the things we expect a second grader to do? Check it out:
R E A D I N G Word Recognition and Word Study
Phonemic Awareness Students will...
R.WS.02.01 demonstrate phonemic awareness by the wide range of sound manipulation competencies including sound blending and deletion.
R.WS.02.02 recognize that words are composed of sounds blended together and carry meaning.
Phonics Students will...
R.WS.02.03 understand the alphabetic principle, that sounds in words are expressed by
the letters of the alphabet.
R.WS.02.04 use structural cues to recognize and decode words with long and short vowels, consonant digraphs, and irregular vowels in isolation and in context including: letter-sound, onset and rimes, whole word chunks, word families, long and short vowels, digraphs
wh, ph, irregular vowels ei, ie, ea, ue.
Word Recognition Students will...
R.WS.02.05 automatically recognize frequently encountered words in print whether encountered in connected text or in isolation with the number of words that can be read fluently increasing steadily across the school year.
R.WS.02.06 make progress in automatically recognizing the 220 Dolch basic sight words and 95 common nouns for mastery in third grade.
R.WS.02.07 make progress to automatically read by sight the Dolch First 1000 Words for mastery in fifth grade.
R.WS.02.08 use previously learned and new strategies to identify unknown words and construct meaning by re-reading a sentence or paragraph when meaning is unclear, using context as a basis for predicting meaning of unfamiliar words, sub-vocalization, and/or sounding out unknown words.
R.WS.02.09 know the meanings of words encountered frequently in grade-level reading and oral language contexts.
R.WS.02.10 use syntactic and semantic cues including reading context; picture clues; prefixes re-, un-; and suffixes
ed, ing, es to determinte the meaning of words in gradeappropriate texts.
Vocabulary Students will...
R.WS.02.11 in context, determine the meaning of words and phrases including objects, actions, concepts, content vocabulary, and literary terms, using strategies and resources including context clues, mental pictures, and questioning.
Fluency Students will...
R.FL.02.01 automatically recognize and fluently read identified grade-level high frequency words encountered in or out of context.
R.FL.02.02 use punctuation cues (periods and question marks) when reading aloud with intonation, pauses, and emphasis.
R.FL.02.03 read aloud unfamiliar text with a minimum of 90% accuracy in word recognition at an independent reading level.
Narrative Text Students will...
R.NT.02.01 describe the similarities of plot and character in classic, multicultural, and contemporary literature that is recognized for quality and literary merit.
R.NT.02.02 identify and describe the basic elements and purpose of a variety of narrative genre including poetry, fantasy, legends, and drama.
R.NT.02.03 identify and describe characters’ actions and motivations, setting (time and place), problem/solution, and sequence of events.
R.NT.02.04 identify and explain how authors/illustrators use literary devices including illustrations and titles to depict major story events, and comparisons including metaphors or similes to reveal characters’ thoughts and actions.
R.NT.02.05 respond to individual and multiple texts by finding evidence, discussing, illustrating, and/or writing to reflect, make connections, take a position, and/or show understanding.
Informational Text Students will...
R.IT.02.01 identify and describe the basic form, features, and purpose of a variety of informational genre including simple "how-to" books, personal correspondence, science and social studies magazines.
R.IT.02.02 discuss informational text patterns including descriptive, sequential, enumerative, and compare/contrast.
R.IT.02.03 explain how authors use text features including boldface text, graphs, maps, diagrams, and charts to enhance the understanding of key and supporting ideas.
R.IT.02.04 respond to individual and multiple texts by finding evidence, discussing, illustrating, and/or writing to reflect, make connections, take a position, and/or show understanding.
Comprehension Students will...
R.CM.02.01 make text-to-self and text-to-text connections and comparisons by activating prior knowledge, connecting personal knowledge, experience, and understanding of others to ideas in text through oral and written responses.
R.CM.02.02 retell in sequence the major idea(s) and relevant details of grade-level narrative and informational text.
R.CM.02.03 compare and contrast relationships among characters, events, and key ideas within and across texts to create a deeper understanding by mapping story elements, graphically representing key ideas and details, and asking questions as they read.
R.CM.02.04 apply significant knowledge from grade-level science, social studies, and mathematics texts.
Metacognition Students will...
R.MT.02.01 self-monitor comprehension by recognizing when meaning is breaking down and use strategies including making credible predictions to increase comprehension when reading or listening to text.
R.MT.02.02 self-monitor comprehension by using strategies including constructing mental images, visually representing ideas in text, and asking questions before, during, and after reading.
R.MT.02.03 self-monitor comprehension by re-reading or listening again if uncertain about meaning, making inferences, and summarizing the most important ideas and themes in a text.
R.MT.02.04 plan, monitor, regulate, and evaluate skills, strategies, and processes to construct and convey meaning (e.g., using context to predict meaning of unfamiliar words), and discuss which comprehension strategies worked and did not work.
R.MT.02.05 self-monitor comprehension by using graphic organizers such as a Venn diagram and paragraphs to compare and contrast or indicate a sequence of ideas.
R.MT.02.06 determine which resources contain appropriate information for the intended task using teacher/student generated criteria.
Critical Standards Students will...
R.CS.02.01 develop and discuss shared standards and begin to assess the quality and accuracy of their own writing and the writing of others.
Reading Attitude Students will...
R.AT.02.01 be enthusiastic about reading and learning how to read.
R.AT.02.02 do substantial reading and writing on their own during free time in school and at home.
W R I T I N G
Writing Genre Students will...
W.GN.02.01 write a narrative piece such as realistic fiction, fantasy, or personal narrative depicting major story events, using illustrations to match mood, and containing setting, problem/solution, and sequenced events.
W.GN.02.02 approximate poetry based on reading a wide variety of grade-appropriate poetry.
W.GN.02.03 write an informational piece including a magazine feature article using an organizational pattern such as description, enumeration, sequence, or compare/contrast that may include graphs, diagrams, or charts to enhance the understanding of central and key ideas.
W.GN.02.04 use the writing process to produce and present a research project; develop two research questions related to a teacher-selected topic; gather electronic or print resources and organize the information using key ideas with teacher assistance.
Writing Process Students will...
W.PR.02.01 set a purpose, consider audience, and begin to use styles and patterns derived from studying authors’ craft when writing a narrative or informational piece.
W.PR.02.02 develop a plan narrowing a broad idea for narrative and informational writing including graphic organizers that represent specific organizational patterns
(e.g., problem/solution, sequence, description, or compare/contrast).
W.PR.02.03 draft focused ideas in written compositions using paragraph clusters, each containing a main idea and some supporting details.
W.PR.02.04 write in first and third person based on genre type and purpose.
W.PR.02.05 draft a coherent piece with appropriate grammar, usage, mechanics, and temporary spellings.
W.PR.02.06 revise drafts based on constructive and specific oral and written responses to writing; identify sections of the piece that need to be revised using reorganization, additions, deletions, and appropriate use of transitions; make stylistic changes in content and form to suit intended purpose and audience.
W.PR.02.07 attempt to proofread and edit writing using appropriate resources including dictionaries and a class-developed checklist both individually and in groups.
Personal Style Students will...
W.PS.02.01 develop personal style in oral, written, and visual messages in both narrative (e.g., descriptive language, use of imagination, varying sentence beginnings) and informational writing (e.g., facts, effective conclusions).
Grammar and Usage Students will...
W.GR.02.01 in the context of writing, correctly use more complex complete sentences, nouns and verbs, commas (in a series, in a letter, and with dates), contractions, colons to denote time, and capitalization of proper nouns.
Spelling Students will...
W.SP.02.01 in the context of writing, correctly spell frequently encountered words
(e.g., two-syllable words including common prefixes and suffixes); for less frequently encountered words use structural cues (e.g., letter/sound, rimes) and environmentalsources (e.g., word walls, word lists).
Handwriting Students will...
W.HW.02.01 fluently and legibly write upper and lower case manuscript letters and begin to write the cursive alphabet.
Writing Attitude Students will...
W.AT.02.01 be enthusiastic about writing and learning to write.
S P E A K I N G
Conventions Students will...
S.CN.02.01 use common grammatical structures correctly when speaking including subject/verb agreement, pronoun/noun agreement, nominative and objective case pronouns, and more complex conjunctions (e.g., although, instead of, so that).
S.CN.02.02 explore and use language to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes including questions and answers, discussions, and social interactions.
S.CN.02.03 speak effectively adopting appropriate tone of voice and intonation patterns in narrative and informational presentations.
S.CN.02.04 present in standard American English if it is their first language. (Students whose first language is not English will present in their developing version of standard American English.)
S.CN.02.05 understand, providing examples of how language differs from school and home as a function of linguistic and cultural group membership.
Discourse Students will ...
S.DS.02.01 engage in substantive conversations, remaining focused on subject matter, with interchanges building on prior responses in book discussions, peer conferencing, or other interactions.
S.DS.02.02 tell or retell stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, drama), using story grammar
(e.g., elaborated information about characters, characters’ actions and motivations, plot,
and setting as related to plot), while maintaining appropriate intonation and tone of voice.
S.DS.02.03 respond to multiple text types by reflecting, making connections, taking a position, and/or showing understanding.
S.DS.02.04 plan and deliver presentations using an informational organizational pattern (e.g., descriptive, cause/effect, compare/contrast) providing supportive facts and details to make their point, reflecting the source of information, while maintaining appropriate intonation and tone of voice using a prop.
L I S T E N I N G & V I E W I N G
Conventions Students will...
L.CN.02.01 understand, restate and follow three- and four-step directions. L.CN.02.02 ask appropriate questions for clarification and understanding during a presentation or report.
L.CN.02.03 listen to or view knowledgeably while demonstrating appropriate social skills of audience behaviors (e.g., eye contact, attentive, supportive) in small and large group settings; listen to the comments of peers and respond on topic adding a connected idea.
L.CN.02.04 understand how the source of the message affects the receiver’s response (student/student, student/teacher, student/parent).
L.CN.02.05 begin to evaluate the messages they experience in broadcast and print media distinguishing between factual information and opinion, advertising hype, or propaganda.
Response Students will...
L.RP.02.01 listen to or view knowledgeably and discuss a variety of genre.
L.RP.02.02 select, listen to or view knowledgeably, and respond thoughtfully to both
classic and contemporary texts recognized for quality and literary merit.
L.RP.02.03 respond to multiple text types listened to or viewed knowledgeably, by discussing, illustrating, and/or writing in order to reflect, make connections, take a position, and/or show understanding.
M A T H E M A T I C S
NUMBER AND OPERATIONS
Count, write, and order whole numbers
N.ME.02.01 Count to 1000 by 1’s, 10’s and 100’s starting from any number in the sequence.
N.ME.02.02 Read and write numbers to 1000 in numerals and words, and relate them to the quantities they represent.
N.ME.02.03 Compare and order numbers to 1000; use the symbols > and <. <br>N.ME.02.04 Count orally by 3’s and 4’s starting with 0, and by 2’s, 5’s, and 10’s starting from any whole number.*
Understand place value
N.ME.02.05 Express numbers through 999 using place value, e.g., 137 is 1 hundred, 3 tens, and 7 ones; use concrete materials.*
Add and subtract whole numbers
N.FL.02.06 Decompose 100 into addition pairs, e.g., 99 + 1, 98 + 2...
N.MR.02.07 Find the distance between numbers on the number line, e.g., how far is 79 from 26?
N.MR.02.08 Find missing values in open sentences, e.g., 42 + ■ = 57; use relationship between addition and subtraction.
N.MR.02.09 Given a contextual situation that involves addition and subtraction using numbers through 99: model using objects or pictures; explain in words; record using numbers and symbols; solve.*
N.FL.02.10 Add fluently two numbers through 99, using strategies including formal algorithms; subtract fluently two numbers through 99.*
N.FL.02.11 Estimate the sum of two numbers with three digits.*
N.FL.02.12 Calculate mentally sums and differences involving: three-digit numbers and ones; three-digit numbers and tens; three-digit numbers and hundreds.
Understand meaning of multiplication and division
N.MR.02.13 Understand multiplication as the result of counting the total number of objects in a set of equal groups, e.g., 3 x 5 gives the number of objects in 3 groups of 5 objects, or 3 x 5 = 5 + 5 + 5 = 15.
N.MR.02.14 Represent multiplication using area and array models.
N.MR.02.15 Understand division (÷) as another way of expressing multiplication, using fact families within the 5 x 5 multiplication table; emphasize that division "undoes" multiplication, e.g., 2 x 3 = 6 can be rewritten as 6 ÷ 2 = 3 or 6 ÷ 3 = 2.
N.MR.02.16 Given a situation involving groups of equal size or of sharing equally, represent with objects, words, and symbols; solve.*
N.MR.02.17 Develop strategies for fluently multiplying numbers up to 5 x 5.*
Work with unit fractions
N.ME.02.18 Recognize, name, and represent commonly used unit fractions with denominators 12 or less; model 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 by folding strips.
N.ME.02.19 Recognize, name, and write commonly used fractions: 1/2, 1/3, 2/3, 1/4, 2/4, 3/4.
N.ME.02.20 Place 0 and halves, e.g., 1/2, 1 1/2, 2 1/2, on the number line; relate to a ruler.
N.ME.02.21 For unit fractions from 1/12 to 1/2 understand the inverse relationship between the size of a unit fraction and the size of the denominator; compare unit fractions from 1/12 to 1/2.
N.ME.02.22 Recognize that fractions such as 2/2, 3/3, and 4/4 are equal to the whole (one).
*revised expectations in italics
Measure, add, and subtract length
M.UN.02.01 Measure lengths in meters, centimeters, inches, feet, and yards approximating to the nearest whole unit and using abbreviations: cm, m, in, ft, yd.
M.PS.02.02 Compare lengths; add and subtract lengths (no conversion of units).
Understand the concept of area
M.UN.02.03 Measure area using non-standard units to the nearest whole unit.
M.TE.02.04 Find the area of a rectangle with whole number side lengths by covering with unit squares and counting, or by using a grid of unit squares; write the area as a product.
Tell time and solve time problems
M.UN.02.05 Using both A.M. and P.M., tell and write time from the clock face in 5 minute intervals and from digital clocks to the minute; include reading time: 9:15 as nine-fifteen and 9:50 as nine-fifty. Interpret time both as minutes after the hour and minutes before the next hour, e.g., 8:50 as eight-fifty and ten to nine. Show times by drawing hands on clock face.
M.UN.02.06 Use the concept of duration of time, e.g., determine what time it will be half an hour from 10:15.
Record, add and subtract money
M.UN.02.07 Read and write amounts of money using decimal notations, e.g., $1.15.
M.PS.02.08 Add and subtract money in mixed units, e.g., $2.50 + 60 cents and $5.75 - $3, but not $2.50 + $3.10.
M.UN.02.09 Read temperature using the scale on a thermometer in degrees Fahrenheit.
Solve measurement problems
M.PS.02.10 Solve simple word problems involving length and money.
Identify and describe shapes
G.GS.02.01 Identify, describe, and compare familiar two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes, such as triangles, rectangles, squares, circles, semi-circles, spheres, and rectangular prisms.
G.GS.02.02 Explore and predict the results of putting together and taking apart two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes.
G.GS.02.04 Distinguish between curves and straight lines and between curved surfaces and flat surfaces.
G.SR.02.05 Classify familiar plane and solid objects, e.g., square, rectangle, rhombus, cube, pyramid, prism, cone, cylinder, and sphere, by common attributes such as shape, size, color, roundness, or number of corners and explain which attributes are being used for classification.
G.TR.02.06 Recognize that shapes that have been slid, turned, or flipped are the same shape, e.g., a square rotated 45° is still a square.
*revised expectations in italics
Use coordinate systems
G.LO.02.07 Find and name locations using simple coordinate systems such as maps and first quandrant grids.
DATA AND PROBABILITY
Create, interpret, and solve problems involving pictographs
D.RE.02.01 Make pictographs using a scale representation, using scales where symbols equal more than one.
D.RE.02.02 Read and interpret pictographs with scales, using scale factors of 2 and 3.
D.RE.02.03 Solve problems using information in pictographs; include scales such as each ■ represents 2 apples; avoid 1/2 ■ cases.
S C I E N C E
K-7 Standard S.IP: Develop an understanding that scientific inquiry and reasoning involves observing, questioning, investigating, recording, and developing solutions to problems.
S.IP.E.1 Inquiry involves generating questions, conducting investigations, and developing solutions to problems through reasoning and observation.
S.IP.02.11 Make purposeful observation of the natural world using the appropriate senses.
S.IP.02.12 Generate questions based on observations.
S.IP.02.13 Plan and conduct simple investigations.
S.IP.02.14 Manipulate simple tools (ruler, meter stick, measuring cups, hand lens, thermometer, balance) that aid observation and data collection.
S.IP.02.15 Make accurate measurements with appropriate units (meter, centimeter) for the measurement tool.
S.IP.02.16 Construct simple charts and graphs from data and observations.
Inquiry Analysis and Communication
K-7 Standard S.IA: Develop an understanding that scientific inquiry and investigations require analysis and communication of findings, using
S.IA.E.1 Inquiry includes an analysis and presentation of findings that lead to future questions, research, and investigations.
S.IA.02.12 Share ideas about science through purposeful conversation.
S.IA.02.13 Communicate and present fi ndings of observations.
S.IA.02.14 Develop strategies and skills for information gathering and
problem solving (books, internet, ask an expert, observation, investigation, technology tools).
Reflection and Social Implications
K-7 Standard S.RS: Develop an understanding that claims and evidence for their scientific merit should be analyzed. Understand how scientists decide what constitutes scientific knowledge. Develop an understanding of the importance of reflection on scientific knowledge and its application to new situations to better understand the role of science in society and technology.
S.RS.E.1 Reflecting on knowledge is the application of scientific knowledge to new and different situations. Reflecting on knowledge requires careful analysis of evidence that guides decision-making and the application of science throughout history and within society.
S.RS.02.11 Demonstrate scientifi c concepts through various illustrations, performances, models, exhibits, and activities.
S.RS.02.13 Recognize that when a science investigation is done the way it was done before, similar results are expected.
S.RS.02.15 Use evidence when communicating scientifi c ideas.
S.RS.02.16 Identify technology used in everyday life.
Properties of Matter
K-7 Standard P.PM: Develop an understanding that all matter has observable attributes with physical and chemical properties that are described, measured, and compared. Understand that states of matter exist as solid, liquid, or gas; and have physical and chemical properties. Understand all matter is composed of combinations of elements, which are organized by common attributes and characteristics on the Periodic Table. Understand that substances can be classified as mixtures or compounds and according to their physical and chemical properties.
P.PM.E.1 Physical Properties- All objects and substances have physical properties that can be measured.
P.PM.02.12 Describe objects and substances according to their properties (color, size, shape, texture, hardness, liquid or solid, sinking or fl oating).
P.PM.02.13 Measure the length of objects using rulers (centimeters) and meter sticks (meters).
P.PM.02.14 Measure the volume of liquids using common measuring tools (graduated measuring cups, measuring spoons, graduated cylinders, and
P.PM.02.15 Compare the weight of objects using balances.
P.PM.E.4 Material Composition- Some objects are composed of a single substance, while other objects are composed of more than one substance.
P.PM.02.41 Recognize that some objects are composed of a single substance (water, sugar, salt) and others are composed of more than one substance (salt and pepper, mixed dry beans).*
Organization of Living Things
K-7 Standard L.OL: Develop an understanding that plants and animals (including humans) have basic requirements for maintaining life which include the need for air, water, and a source of energy. Understand that all life forms can be classified as producers, consumers, or decomposers as they are all part of a global food chain where food/energy is supplied by plants which need light to produce food/energy. Develop an understanding that plants and animals can be classified by observable traits and physical characteristics. Understand that all living organisms are composed of cells and they exhibit cell growth and division.
UnDerstand that all plants and animals have a definite life cycle, body parts, and systems to perform specific life functions. * Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.
L.OL.E.1 Life Requirements - Organisms have basic needs. Animals and plants need air, water, and food. Plants also require light. Plants and animals use food as a source of energy and as a source of building material for growth and repair.
L.OL.02.14 Identify the needs of plants.
L.OL.E.2 Life Cycles- Plants and animals have life cycles. Both plants and animals begin life and develop into adults, reproduce, and eventually die. The details of this life cycle are different for different organisms.
L.OL.02.22 Describe the life cycle of familiar flowering plants
including the following stages: seed, plant, flower, and fruit.
K-7 Standard L.HE: Develop an understanding that all life forms must reproduce to survive. Understand that characteristics of
mature plants and animals may be inherited or acquired and that only inherited traits are passed on to their young. Understand that inherited traits can be influenced by changes in the environment and by genetics.
L.HE.E.1 Observable Characteristics - Plants and animals share many, but not all, characteristics of their parents.
L.HE.02.13 Identify characteristics of plants (for example: leaf shape, flower type, color, size) that are passed on from parents to young.
K-7 Standard E.SE: Develop an understanding of the properties of Earth materials and how those properties make materials useful. Understand gradual and rapid changes in Earth materials and features of the surface of Earth. Understand magnetic properties of Earth.
E.SE.E.2 Surface Changes- The surface of Earth changes. Some changes are due to slow processes, such as erosion and weathering, and some changes are due to rapid processes, such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.
E.SE.02.21 Describe the major landforms of the surface of the Earth (mountains, plains, plateaus, valleys, hills).
K-7 Standard E.FE: Develop an understanding that Earth is a planet nearly covered with water and that water on Earth can be found in three states, solid, liquid, and gas. Understand how water on Earth moves in predictable patterns. Understand Earth’s atmosphere as a mixture of gases and water vapor.
E.FE.E.1 Water- Water is a natural resource and is found under the ground, on the surface of the Earth, and in the sky. It exists in three states (liquid, solid, gas) and can go back and forth from one form to another.
E.FE.02.11 Identify water sources (wells, springs, lakes, rivers, oceans).
E.FE.02.12 Identify household uses of water (drinking, cleaning, food preparation).
E.FE.02.13 Describe the properties of water as a liquid (visible, fl owing, shape of container and recognize rain, dew, and fog as water in its liquid state. *
E.FE.02.14 Describe the properties of water as a solid (hard, visible, frozen, cold) and recognize ice, snow, and hail as water in its solid state. *
E.FE.E.2 Water Movement- Water moves in predictable patterns.
E.FE.02.21 Describe how rain collects on the surface of the Earth and fl ows downhill into bodies of water (streams,
rivers, lakes, oceans) or into the ground.
E.FE.02.22 Describe the major bodies of water on the Earth’s surface (lakes, ponds, oceans, rivers, streams). * Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.
S O C I A L S T U D I E S
H2 Living and Working Together in Communities
Use historical thinking to understand the past.
2 – H2.0.1 Demonstrate chronological thinking by distinguishing among years and decades using a timeline of local community events.
2 – H2.0.2 Explain why descriptions of the same event in the local community can be different.
2 – H2.0.3 Use an example to describe the role of the individual in creating history.
2 – H2.0.4 Describe changes in the local community over time (e.g., types of businesses, architecture and landscape, jobs, transportation, population).
2 – H2.0.5 Identify a problem in a community’s past and describe how it was resolved.
2 – H2.0.6 Construct a historical narrative about the history of the local community from a variety of sources (e.g., data gathered from local residents, artifacts, photographs).
G1 The World in Spatial Terms
Use geographic representations to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.
2 – G1.0.1 Construct maps of the local community that contain symbols, labels, and legends denoting human and natural characteristics of place.
2 – G1.0.2 Use maps to describe the spatial organization of the local community by applying concepts including relative location and using distance, direction, and scale.
G2 Places and Regions
Understand how regions are created from common physical and human characteristics.
2 – G2.0.1 Compare the physical and human characteristics of the local community with those of another community.
2 – G2.0.2 Describe how the local community is part of a larger region (e.g., county, metropolitan area, state).
G4 Human Systems
Understand how human activities help shape the Earth’s surface.
2 – G4.0.1 Describe land use in the community (e.g., where people live, where services are provided, where products are made).
2 – G4.0.2 Describe the means people create for moving people, goods, and ideas within the local community.
2 – G4.0.3 Use components of culture (e.g., foods, language, religion, traditions) to describe diversity in the local community.
G5 Environment and Society
Understand the effects of human-environment interactions.
2 – G5.0.1 Suggest ways people can responsibly interact with the environment in the local community.
2 – G5.0.2 Describe positive and negative consequences of changing the physical environment of the local community.
Civics and Government
C1 Purposes of Government
Explain why people create governments.
2 – C1.0.1 Explain why people form governments.
2 – C1.0.2 Distinguish between government action and private action.
C2 Values and Principles of American Democracy
Understand values and principles of American constitutional democracy.
2 – C2.0.1 Explain how local governments balance individual rights with the common good to solve local community problems.
2 – C2.0.2 Describe how the Pledge of Allegiance reflects the core democratic value of patriotism.
C3 Structure and Functions of Government
Describe the structure of government in the United States and how it functions to serve citizens.
2 – C3.0.1 Give examples of how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws (ordinances) in the local community.
2 – C3.0.2 Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.
2 – C3.0.3 Identify services commonly provided by local governments (e.g., police, fire departments, schools,libraries, parks).
C5 Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy
Explain important rights and how, when, and where American citizens demonstrate their responsibilities by participating in government.
2 – C5.0.1 Identify ways citizens participate in community decisions.
2 – C5.0.2 Distinguish between personal and civic responsibilities and explain why they are important in community life.
2 – C5.0.3 Design and participate in community improvement projects that help or inform others.
E1 Market Economy
Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.
2 – E1.0.1 Identify the opportunity cost involved in a consumer decision.
2 – E1.0.2 Identify businesses in the local community.
2 – E1.0.3 Describe how businesses in the local community meet economic wants of consumers.
2 – E1.0.4 Describe the natural, human, and capital resources needed for production of a good or service in a community.
2 – E1.0.5 Use examples to show that people cannot produce everything they want (specialization) and depend on trade with others to meet their wants.
Public Discourse, Decision Making, and Citizen Involvement (P3, P4)
P3.1 Identifying and Analyzing Public Issues
Clearly state a problem as a public policy issue, analyze various perspectives, and generate and evaluate possible alternative resolutions.
2 – P3.1.1 Identify public issues in the local community that influence the daily lives of its citizens.
2 – P3.1.2 Use graphic data and other sources to analyze information about a public issue in the local community and evaluate alternative resolutions.
2 – P3.1.3 Give examples of how conflicts over core democratic values lead people to differ on resolutions to a public policy issue in the local community.
P3.3 Persuasive Communication About a Public Issue
Communicate a reasoned position on a public issue.
2 – P3.3.1 Compose a statement expressing a position on a public policy issue in the local community and justify the position with a reasoned argument.
P4.2 Citizen Involvement
Act constructively to further the public good.
2 – P4.2.1 Develop and implement an action plan to address or inform others about a public issue.
2 – P4.2.2 Participate in projects to help or inform others.
T E C H N O L O G Y
BASIC OPERATIONS AND CONCEPTSBy the end of Grade 2 each student will:
- understand that people use many types of technologies in their daily lives (e.g., computers, cameras, audio/video players, phones, televisions)
- identify common uses of technology found in daily life
- recognize, name, and will be able to label the major hardware components in a computer system (e.g., computer, monitor, keyboard, mouse, and printer)
- identify the functions of the major hardware components in a computer system
- discuss the basic care of computer hardware and various media types (e.g., diskettes, CDs, DVDs, videotapes)
- use various age-appropriate technologies for gathering information (e.g., dictionaries, encyclopedias, audio/video players, phones, web resources)
- use a variety of age-appropriate technologies for sharing information (e.g., drawing a picture, writing a story)
- recognize the functions of basic fi le menu commands (e.g., new, open, close, save, print)
- proofread and edit their writing using appropriate resources including dictionaries and a class developed checklist both individually and as a group
SOCIAL, ETHICAL, AND HUMAN ISSUES
By the end of Grade 2 each student will:
- identify common uses of information and communication technologies
- discuss advantages and disadvantages of using technology
- recognize that using a password helps protect the privacy of information
- discuss scenarios describing acceptable and unacceptable uses of age-appropriate technology (e.g., computers, phones, 911, internet, email) at home or at school
- discuss the consequences of irresponsible uses of technology resources at home or at school
- understand that technology is a tool to help complete a task
- understand that technology is a source of information, learning, and entertainment
- identify places in the community where one can access technology
TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTIVITY TOOLS
By the end of Grade 2 each student will:
- know how to use a variety of productivity software (e.g., word processors, drawing tools, presentation software) to convey ideas and illustrate concepts
- be able to recognize the best type of productivity software to use for certain age-appropriate tasks (e.g., word processing, drawing, web browsing)
- be aware of how to work with others when using technology tools (e.g., word processors, drawing tools, presentation software) to convey ideas or illustrate simple concepts relating to a specified project
TECHNOLOGY COMMUNICATIONS TOOLS
By the end of Grade 2 each student will:
- identify procedures for safely using basic telecommunication tools (e.g., e-mail, phones) with assistance from teachers, parents, or student partners
- know how to use age-appropriate media (e.g., presentation software, newsletters, word processors) to communicate ideas to classmates, families, and others
- know how to select media formats (e.g., text, graphics, photos, video), with assistance from teachers, parents, or student partners, to communicate and share ideas with classmates, families, and others
TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH TOOLS
By the end of Grade 2 each student will:
- know how to recognize the Web browser and associate it with accessing resources on the internet
- use a variety of technology resources (e.g., CD-ROMs, DVDs, search engines, websites) to locate or collect information relating to a specific curricular topic with assistance from teachers, parents, or student partners
- interpret simple information from existing age-appropriate electronic databases (e.g., dictionaries, encyclopedias,
spreadsheets) with assistance from teachers, parents, or student partners
- provide a rationale for choosing one type of technology over another for completing a specific task
TECHNOLOGY PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING TOOLS
By the end of Grade 2 each student will:
- discuss how to use technology resources (e.g., dictionaries, encyclopedias, search engines, websites) to solve age-appropriate problems
- identify ways that technology has been used to address real world problems (personal and community)
Grade Level Content Expectations taken from http://www.michigan.gov/...