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    Uploaded by AnonymousNigeria on January 9, 2012

”Out of Africa always comes something new” wrote the Roman historian Pliny, (23-79 A.D.) With Mummar Qaddafi gone from Libyan, this old adage will almost certainly gain new meaning because Qaddafi was not only the dictator who ruled Libya with the whip for 40 years, he was a major power in African affairs. He sought to unify Africa under his leadership and saw himself as "King of all the African tribes." Well, with the kickoff of Occupy Nigeria, we are seeing something new in Africa today.

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, 160 million people or 1 in 6 Africans live in Nigeria, so any movement there is bound to have a big impact on the whole continent. Could this have anything to do with Qaddafi's recent demise and the success of the revolution in Libya? These are the main questions I wish to touch upon in this article. But first a quick update for those that have not been glued to news out of Africa all day.

3 people were killed and at least another 20 were injured as Nigerian state security used tear gas and rubber bullets and finally resorted to live ammunition in attempts to suppress mass protests in Lagos and other major cities in Nigeria. Except for the rallies, the streets were eerily empty, and shops and businesses closed as most of the country was brought to a grinding halt by a nationwide general strike which its organizers have named "Occupy Nigeria."

This nationwide general strike was sparked by the government's decision to discontinue fuel subsidies. This resulted in a more than doubling of gasoline prices overnight. Nigeria exports more crude oil than any other African country, but only has refinery capacity for 25% of its own needs. It must import, at great expense, most of the gasoline it uses and the government subsidies make the cost bearable in a country where most people live on less than $2 a day. In fact, most Nigerians see the fuel subsidy as the only benefit of being an oil rich nation that trickles down to ordinary people.

Al Jazeera English has been giving good coverage to this story. For more details and background I would recommend Nigerian fuel protests turn deadly

Here are two YouTube Videos of today's action

It is so symbolic of the way this movement has circled the globe in one year that they have named it Occupy Nigeria because this is an obvious nod to Occupy Wall St. and the occupy movement which got its impulse from the Arab Spring which began in another African country, Tunisia, just north of Nigeria.

It was also just about a year ago, on Jan. 2, 2011 that the hacker group Anonymous launched OpTunisia in support of the people's struggles in Tunisia. On Jan. 5, 2012, The Naija Cyber Hactivists in conjunction with the allied forces of Anonymous announced Op Nigeria, which had been running since at leat May 2011, was moving in support of Occupy Nigeria by defacing the website of the Federal Ministry Of Transport. Over the weekend more Nigerian government websites were defaced by NCH including the National Insurance Commission [owned], National Information Technology Development Agency [owned] and MNNA [owned]

It is very significant that Occupy Nigeria is taking place all across the country and has been able to unite people across tribal, ethnic and religious lines. Nigeria has a long history of religious strife that has threatened to tear the country apart. Most recently Nigeria was in the news because of the Christmas bombings of Christian churches by the Islamic extremist group Boko Haram. Those terrorist attacks killed dozens of Nigerians.

For historical reasons Nigeria has been pretty evenly divided between Muslims and Christians with the Muslims concentrated in the North and the Christians concentrated in the South. This religious difference has been the main locus of conflict in Nigeria with most of the North states implementing Sharia law and the indigenous Salafist group, Boko Haram trying to be the Taliban of Nigeria.

The demise of Qaddafi and the events in Libya almost certainly have something to do with this recent upsurge in activity by Boko Haram. Mummar Qaddafi may have been for uniting all of Africa but he was also for the break up of Nigeria. From his position as president of the African Union, he advocated the division of Nigeria into separate Muslim and Christian states and at the same time he worked to unite all of Africa into one Muslim state. It is now very clear that he did much more that just speak in favor of the break up of Nigeria. He put his money, meaning Libya's national treasure, were his mouth was. Kingsley Omonobi of Abuja, Nigeria wrote on the Vanguard website days after Qaddafi was killed:

Slain Libyan leader, Col. Muammar Gaddafi was a major sponsor of terrorism activities and religious fundamentalism in the country, resulting in his supply of arms and ammunition to sectarian groups during religious uprisings, terrorist attacks and even the post elections violence that rocked the nation soon after the 2011 presidential elections, Saturday Vanguard has learnt.

Security sources disclosed that they had been aware of the intention of Col. Gaddafi to instigate the destabilization of Nigeria with a view to bringing to fruition, his proclamation early this year, that Nigeria would disintegrate into several parts unless the country was divided into two, with North going their own way and the South forming their own country.

Saturday Vanguard was told that it was in his bid to make this happen, that Col Gaddafi massively funded the construction of Mosques and other Islamic Centers of worship in Kano and other cities of the North. He was also said to have embarked on several humanitarian donations and visits to Kano and these other Northern states, most times unannounced, after which he would journey back to his country.

“There were also several visits by several top and influential Northerners, especially those of the Islamic faith to Libya ostensibly on the invitation of the late Libyan leader when he was alive and held sway in Tripoli before the revolution against him started which security agencies were aware of and we closely monitored these persons”, the source said.

It is against this backdrop and that of several well documented destabilization plots, allegedly sponsored or supported by the late Libyan leader, Saturday Vanguard gathered, that Nigeria moved swiftly in recognizing the National Transition Council after Gaddafi had fled Tripoli...

Asked to give an example of how and when the security agencies discovered Gaddafi’s plan against Nigeria, the source said, “As far back as 2003 and 2004, some armed bandits who had been terrorizing Adamawa, Yobe, Kano states, were caught with about 40 double barrels, lethal rifles, machine guns and ammunition.

After investigations, and coupled with confessions from the suspects, the weapons and ammunition were found to have a special Gaddafi insignia on them.”

So why did Nigeria keep quiet all these years till Gaddafi had problems with his people? The source said he was not in a position to explain, adding that such answer can only come from the federal government.

One example: Mujahid Dokubo-Asari, head of the Niger Delta Peoples Volunteer Force was one such Qaddafi trained Nigerian separatist. For many years he led a violent campaign to turn Nigeria's oil rich Niger Delta into an independent republic. He was born a Christian but converted to Islam. He was trained in Libya in 1990 and 1991. He told AFP  
"I was invited by the Libyan government and given a scholarship to go study Islam," he said. "When I arrived in Libya, they thought that I had revolutionary ideas, so I became close to the leadership and I started talking to them."
He talked to Gaddafi as late as 2010 and has acknowledged receiving money from him but now that Qaddafi is dead he says his movement is on "sabbatical."

Another Nigerian commentator saw it this way:

Gaddhafi was the chief sponsor of terrorist activities in the Niger Delta and in the North. Listen to Asari Dokubo and you will see reasons. Now he's gone, no more funds for them to carry out terrorist attacks against the state of Nigeria.

As might be expected of one who fashioned himself king of all Africans, Mummar Qaddafi had a long history of cultivating close ties with Africa's most populous state and while Nigeria doesn't share a common boundary with Libya, it is very easy to travel overland between the two without much government interference. The countries in between, Niger, Chad, Mali, Burkina Faso and Northern Sudan all are weak states with little or no control of their international boundaries. Nigeria, for example has over a thousand border entry points but only 25 of those are peopled!

Nigerian immigrants regularly made the perilous journey to Libya in search of work. Some of that work ended up being fighting in Qaddafi's mercenary army. According to Agaju Madugba in September:

"More than 200 Nigerians were arrested in Libya by the TNC, while about 20 were executed last week on allegations of supporting Gaddafi, as mercenaries."

Three are known to have died in his service. More have returned to Nigeria now that the fighting has ended, along with thousands of Nigerian immigrant laborers displaced by the upheaval in Libya.

There has also been a problem with Libyan weapons showing up in Nigeria now that they are being used less in Libya, and more significantly, some of Qaddafi's senior leadership is said to have fled to Nigeria.

All of this has no doubt had a destabilizing effect on Nigeria, but it is mostly a short term effect. Even the recent carnage created by Boko Haram can probably best be seen as a rather desperate explosion by a movement that just lost a major sponsor and knows that it will soon be weaker.

These immediate problems will be quickly overcome in the face of the unity being expressed in Occupy Nigeria. The important thing is that with Qaddafi gone, a major opponent of Nigerian unity has been removed. That is why Ochereome Nnanna could speak of,

the unbridled sense of euphoria sweeping Libya and even Nigeria at the fall of a man who dominated his country – and to some extent, the continent – for 42 years.

and why yesterday Emmanuel Iduma titled his blog on Black Looks:
See, The Nigerian Revolution Has Begun

Uploaded by AnonymousNigeria on January 4, 2012

My other pieces related to this story:
Helter Skelter: Qaddafi's African Adventure
Racism in Libya

Sat Mar 24, 2012 at 10:08 PM PT: In the north, the struggle against Boko Haram is getting fiercer. This was just yesterday:

MAIDUGURI, Nigeria (AP) — An hours-long gun battle raged Saturday in a northern Nigerian city that's the spiritual home of a radical Islamist sect, and a car bomb exploded during a gun fight with members of the group in another city in the restive region, authorities said. At least six people were killed.
Recently the sect rejected efforts to began indirect talks with the government and now the government is pressing its military campaign against them with renewed vigor.

Meanwhile the Occupy Nigeria movement, like the occupy movement everywhere, continues its growth outside of the lime light, as example by this article two days ago: Occupy Nigeria: Nneka on the "Vagabonds in Power"
or this one from five days ago:
Occupy Yourself, Occupy Nigeria By Malcolm Fabiyi

Originally posted to Anonymous Dkos on Tue Jan 10, 2012 at 01:52 AM PST.

Also republished by Occupy Wall Street.

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Comment Preferences

  •  Tip Jar (9+ / 0-)

    Remember history, Clay Claiborne, Director Vietnam: American Holocaust - narrated by Martin Sheen

    by Clay Claiborne on Tue Jan 10, 2012 at 01:52:51 AM PST

  •  parts of nigeria are occupied by royal dutch shell (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    mickT, wu ming

    hopefully they can get decolonized.  

    Global warming is the inconvenient truth, nuclear power is the inconvenient alternative.

    by eigenlambda on Tue Jan 10, 2012 at 02:12:36 AM PST

  •  Great diary -- minor disagreement (5+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    TarantinoDork, J V Calin, MGross, wu ming, mimi

    I'm so glad someone else has pointed out the horrendous role Gaddafi played in trying to destabilize other African countries in his egomaniacal belief that he was the king of all Africa.  

    I would additionally point out that Gaddafi did indeed destabilize two countries to the point of genocidal wars -- Liberia and Sierra Leone.  The butchers of both countries, Charles Taylor and Foday Sankoh, were both trained by Gadaffi in how to use random atavistic terror to terrorize a population into submission.  Taylor is on trial for crimes against humanity in the Hague and his defense is (was) based in part on the idea that he could not be tried without Gaddafi as a co-defendant.

    I would just point out that the Niger delta is not an Islamic area.  That is typically considered a Christian/animist Ibo area.  It has a history of wanting to secede -- in fact Nigeria's civil war, the Biafran war was based on the area wanting to become a separate state.  Secessionist tendencies predate Gaddafi and are based on the problem that most of Nigeria's wealth comes from oil extracted from the area while the environmental devastation costs are born by the local residents with little to show in return.

    Also, I wouldn't say that the Muslim North and the Christian/traditionalist south are balanced.  Generally the source of instability in Nigeria has been that the North is demographically preponderant but economically a stagnant backwater, while the south is smaller demographically but the economic engine of the country.  Moreover, because of Islam, northern leaders have been able to persuade northerners to vote as a block.

    This meant that until Nigeria finally devised a usable federal system, the impoverished Muslim north generally elected the central government to serve its purposes while ignoring the needs of the south which actually generated most of the country's economic activity -- not only oil, but business, education and culture.

    Lastly, I don't think that this wave of activism spreading across Nigeria was inspired by either OWS or the Arab spring.  Nigeria has been an incredibly raucous democracy with a vast engaged civil society for a long time!  I would think of it as a "rebranding" in line with global events of what was already there.

  •  Fall of Gaddafi Already Being Felt in Darfur, Mali (4+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    leevank, J V Calin, wu ming, HamdenRice

    Since the fall of Tripoli, several terrorist/militant groups that had received sponsorship by Gaddafi have seen tremendous setbacks.

    In Mali/ Tuareg insurgent Ibrahim ag Bahanga was killed (likely by his own men) near the Libyan border just days after the fall of Tripoli. Bahanga was a former Malian army officer who became the leader of the ADC, the most militant of all the Tuareg rebel groups. During the Libyan uprising Bahanga's militia were the cornerstone of Gaddafi's mercenary army...Bahanga himself is reported by fellow Tuaregs to have been involved in massacres of Libyan citizens in and around Misrata.

    In Darfur, late last month, the leader of the Darfur rebel group 'Justice & Equality Movement' Khalil Ibrahim was killed by Sudanese forces after he was forced to return from his safe haven in Gaddafi's Libya.  Now, while I'm the last one to cheer the military successes of the genocidal Sudanese army, the fact remains that Ibrahim's militancy was universally viewed as an obstacle to peace in the region. The JEM, an Islamist-friendly militia, had consistently refused to participate/dragged its feet on peace negotiations alongside the SLM and other Darfur rebel groups.

    A related aside outside of November the Colombian military finally caught up to and killed Alfonso Cano...the head of narco-terrorist group FARC who had received money & sponsorship from Gaddafi up until the fall of Tripoli.

    In liberating Libya, we have 'cut off the head' of the number one source of money & weapons to genocidal dictators and terrorists throughout the continent. While we can debate whether the current protest movements in Nigeria are directly tied to this, there can be no doubt that Gaddafi was a massive obstacle to peace, reform, and democracy in Africa.

  •  The gasoline subsidy had to go. (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:

    Energy subsidies are among the worst economic policies a government can implement.  It was encouraging a great deal of fuel smuggling, besides costing the country billions it could ill afford.

  •  I will follow your diaries now ... thanks, great (0+ / 0-)

    material and summary report.

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