Skip to main content

First, let me tell you about myself and why I have a particularly strong interest in bees, and why their welfare is personal to me. And then I'll tell a little about one of the worst of the perils that threatens bees, and what you can do about it.

Bees and beekeeping have long been a part of my family. I grew up around bees. When I was just a knee-high boy, I had already begun to help my father in his beekeeping business by performing the technical skill of grafting tiny bee larvae from natural bee comb to man-made queen cell cups, as part of the process of raising new queens for commercial use by my father's beekeeper clients in the United States.  This first task was my introduction to beekeeping.

My father learned beekeeping as a youth, growing up on a Wyoming farm during the depression years, taking care of his father's 100 bee colonies. My father went on to become Wyoming's State Bee Inspector, a job which mostly entails inspecting apiaries (groups of bee hives in a single location) to identify and contain diseases. He also had his own commercial operation with several thousand bee colonies spread out over several states, including Wyoming, Nebraska, and California.

In later years, due to heart disease, he had to convert his business to a lighter form of work, which led him to move to Puerto Rico, where he founded a queen-raising business and where he produced royal jelly, a product of the hive used by bees to feed larvae.  When the substance is fed to ordinary worker bee larvae, the larvae matures into a queen, instead, hence the origin of the term.  I was three years old when we moved to the island.

And I, in turn, learned beekeeping from my father, which makes me the third generation of my family to become immersed in apiculture.

Bees shaped my life, and formed a part of my world view. As a boy, I accompanied my father, beginning at age four, to the apiaries located in the mountainous region of Puerto Rico. Bees were an integral part of my life, and signs of their presence were everywhere, with bees crawling on the windows of my father's workshops, frequent visits to my father's  various apiaries, and on the breakfast table in the form of honey for our cereal. We would head up to the mountains in my father's old pickup or his jeep, driving on dirt country roads, passing by ox-carts, old farm houses, in the back country that is now largely non-existent today. On the way back, we would stop at a private home and have a traditional Puerto Rican soup, served by a motherly Puerto Rican lady who smiled warmly at my older brother and I. This was our life.

Bees were a factor woven into the fabric of my everyday world. I grew up conceiving of bees as a source of food, of economic sustenance, as precious friends of the family. My father's respect for them rubbed off on me, and later in life, I acquired 300 colonies of my own.  The experience of beekeeping in the mountains of Puerto Rico as a child where I watched my father tend the bees, seeing the interrelationship between the tropical mountain flora, the bees, and humankind, helped form my intense respect and love for not only bees, but also for the lush green environment of the natural world.

Thus, it should come as no surprise that the continued existence of bees matters to me. I cannot imagine the absence of the wondrous and productive insect that has comprised a major part of my own existence. The loss would be staggering. And yet now the existence of bees is threatened.

But never mind that. Never mind why this crisis concerning bees is personal to me. Why should my personal anecdotes matter to you?

Few people will have experienced this direct, close relationship with bees. However, bees and their survival directly affect all of us for other reasons which are of far more critical importance.

These remarkable little insects should matter to you, as well. They should matter to us all.  This isn't a matter of personal fondness for an insect due to nostalgia, but rather a matter of global environmental survival.

Okay, by now most of us have become familiar with the huge bounty of diverse crops of foods that exist only because of insect pollination, which we all love to eat, and which have enormous nutritional value and are thus of vast importance to preserve as a highly necessary and valued part of the human diet.  I don't see the need to repeat that here. And most of us have likely read about how honeybee pollination services alone account for some 15 billion dollars in our economy, not to mention how much we all benefit from the increased yields to farmers from pollination by bees.

Well, what the hell. I'll repeat it again just to remind you:

"Global Report On Bee Decline-Tip of the Iceberg"

The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) released a report this week focused on the recent global phenomenon of honey bee deaths, indicating that colony disorders put pressure on an already taxed food system, and urging a shift towards more ecological farming.
Pollination is the key ecosystem service. In the U.S. alone, honey bee pollination services are estimated at $15 billion per year, and the crop acreage requiring these services stands at an all-time high – even as bee populations are declining here more precipitously than in most of the rest of the world. Each year since 2006, U.S. honey bee losses have ranged between 29% and 36%.
We often say that bees are responsible for a third of everything we eat. Achim Steiner, head of UNEP, cites an even more sobering statistic: "Of the 100 crop species that provide 90 percent of the world's food, over 70 are pollinated by bees."
Here's the link to the original UN report:


This is all true and worth mentioning. But another aspect which is alarming to ecologists about the decline in honeybees is the status of bees as a keystone indicator species.

Some species are known to have a disproportionately large role in determining the overall community structure within an ecosystem. These species are called keystone species. Removal, addition, or changes in local populations of keystone species can have significant impacts on the functioning of ecosystem processes, predatory relationships, and overall long-term stability.
If the bees disappear, the gaping hole they will leave in ecosystems could result in catastrophic consequences. In other words, as has by now so often been repeated, bees may be the equivalent of the canary in the coal mine. If bees can't be sustained in our global environment, it doesn't bode well for the environment as a whole.

This being the case, wouldn't it seem wise and prudent, then, that our government leaders, especially those charged with actually protecting the environment, come to high alert and do all that is possible to address this problem? Shouldn't they be the very first to be sounding the alarm? Isn't that the proper, sane and expected role of a functioning government?

After all, if we want good food to eat, if we want the economy to remain strong, and we care about agriculture and view it as an important industry that insures our survival as a species; if we care about the environment and global ecosystems, and if we care about mass extinction and the biodiversity crisis...

Seven out of ten biologists believe that we are in the midst of a mass extinction of living things, and that this dramatic loss of species poses a major threat to human existence in the next century.
{... }
Scientists rate biodiversity loss as a more serious environmental problem than the depletion of the ozone layer, global warming, or pollution and contamination.
Yes, if we care about all of these issues, then we should care about bees.   


And we would fully expect that good people in office would take action to avert this alarming crisis that is occurring with our little friends, the bees, considering all that they do for us, and all that we have unfortunately done to them.


But there is a problem. Our government is not taking action, but is actually aiding and abetting the perpetrators.

Bees are, of course, under assault. Not only are bees being attacked in unprecedented degrees by disease, parasites, and various stressors that are putting their survival in grave jeopardy, of which any one of these major factors, even as a single cause, kills bees, but one of the the worst of these threats, the insidious, deleterious pesticides which are poisoning the bees, and have been linked by numerous controlled studies to be a major factor in Colony Collapse Disorder, among other affects, is being waged by a pesticide-peddling corporation with the help of the very government body that is supposed to be protecting the bees: The Environmental Protection Agency. (EPA).

A leaked memo within the agency reveals that the EPA's own scientists warned of the toxicity of the neonicotinoids to honeybees. (Note: Clothianidin is a form of neonicotinoid marketed by Bayer).

This compound is toxic to honey bees. The persistence of residues and potential residual toxicity of Clothianidin in nectar and pollen suggests the possibility of chronic toxic risk to honey bee larvae and the eventual instability of the hive.
And yet the EPA went forward with permitting the use of the pesticides, despite the warnings.


In the face of the evidence that neonicotinoid pesticides are a contributing factor in the ongoing, huge economic and environmental losses stemming from mass bee die-offs and compromised pollinator health, EPA should have adopted a more protective, more rigorous stance toward the data necessary for registration. Instead, EPA loosened its oversight, allowing farmers to inundate fields with toxic chemicals before EPA has confirmed their safety. In particular, the agency continues to maintain the registration status for clothianidin despite the fact that the registrant, Bayer AG, has failed to conduct a required study satisfying EPA's standards after having more than nine years to gather the needed data. EPA has definitively stated that Bayer's belated attempt to conduct a field study of clothianidin's effects on pollinators did not satisfy the condition on registration.

Yet, the agency has never identified any alternative study that supports a finding that clothianidin does not have any unreasonable adverse effects on the environment €”including pollinators. Such a finding was, and remains, a prerequisite to conditional registration. Continuing to allow clothianidin to be marketed, sold and used when not one study meets EPA's condition for its registration is, as a matter of law, arbitrary, capricious and contrary to the mandates of FIFRA and the APA.

The environmental blog, the Grist, put it this way:
The EPA asked Bayer — the manufacturer of clothianidin — to conduct a study looking at its effects on bees and other pollinators back in 2003, but allowed Bayer to sell the pesticide under “conditional registration” in the meantime. Bayer didn’t produce a field study until 2007, and in spring 2010, clothianidin was quietly granted full registration. But later that year a leaked document revealed that EPA scientists had found Bayer’s study inadequate. “By that time, the pesticide was all over the country,” said Peter Jenkins, an attorney with the Center for Food Safety, the lead legal group on the petition. “We felt that what EPA did was illegal.”
Other countries have not been so cavalier. Germany, the home country of Bayer, the maker of the pesticides, has gone against Bayer and has banned the chemicals. And Italy and France, as well, have banned them. And there are others who have joined in the ban.

The corporate profiteering of pesticide makers and their government enablers who are complicit are waging this chemical warfare. One could consider the bees to be "collateral damage" in the onward thrust for turning a profit. They just don't give a fuck if it stands in the way of increasing their wealth and insuring their continued longevity as members of the corrupt ruling class, which has come to be known in recent times as the 1%, that tiny fraction of society which has managed to bend the world's most powerful nation to serve its insatiable, rapacious interests, to put it short and sweet and to the point.

What I can't understand is why people put up with this bullshit. One reason might be because industry scientists step into the fray, diverting attention from the pesticides to other pathogens and confusing the public with an admittedly complex subject. You see, there are, indeed, a complex array of causes which combine together to kill bees. But lets not forget that our agency's own scientists were on the side of the bees in the leaked memo. And that memo? We can thank, yet again, Wikileaks for that.

Without doubt, that leak was a source of real pain and embarrassment to not only the EPA enablers, but also to at least a few of these sociopathic captains of industry, staring down from their lofty perches in penthouses at the rest of us mere mortals, scurrying around on planet earth worrying about insignificant pests. After all, it's survival of the fittest, and the bees are losing, and never mind the fact that we'll be pulled over the brink along with them. Somewhere, Ayn Rand is smiling, and Atlas is shrugging. Her boys are making her proud.

A couple of years ago, after a long hiatus, I returned to beekeeping, and now have 35 colonies. And the chief difference I see in the world of apiculture, between now and years ago, is the difficulty in keeping the bees alive and well, capable of producing a good honey crop.

When I was a kid, you could throw a swarm of bees in a hive, put that hive in corner of your yard, leave it alone and it would usually thrive for years without any aid or intervention from its human keepers. Now, bees require constant attention to deal with all manner of parasites and infections, but there is one factor that stands out as entirely preventable; something that has been proven to harm bees, contribute to Colony Collapse Disorder, weaken their immune systems, cause queen loss, and which has been linked to bees becoming prey to several other deleterious pathogens. That factor is the use of neonicotinoids by farmers on crops.

Many studies have accumulated which are elucidated here, here, and here to make the case against these toxic substances.

This pesticide must be banned. Now. Please go to the link provided in the following excerpt and sign the petition to the FDA now! Sign the petition to the EPA before it's too late.

The Pesticide Action Network (PAN) along with CREDO other environmental and concerned groups, have filed a petition with the EPA to get these harmful pesticides removed from use. A decision by the EPA is imminent in the next two weeks, and they need to hear from us, the citizens, of our demand that action be taken to save the bees. The window of opportunity is now, and reportedly won't come again for review until 2018.

Please go the link, read the statement, inform yourselves, and then PLEASE sign the petition to the EPA asking it to act now to remove this pesticide from use by farmers.

Save the bees!

In March, PAN joined partners and beekeepers from around the country in filing a legal petition with EPA, calling on the agency to make use of its emergency powers to protect bees from Bayer's pesticide clothianidin. Sources tell us that in the next two weeks, EPA will decide whether or not bees dying off at unprecedented rates constitutes an "imminent hazard".

Since the wholesale decline of bees and other pollinators is most certainly an imminent hazard requiring emergency intervention, we want to be sure that EPA knows what's at stake and knows we are watching.

Tell EPA to take immediate action to protect bees from a pesticide that clearly poses an imminent threat.

Sign the petition here

You can also sign the petition at CREDO's web page here:
Tell the EPA: Ban the pesticide that's killing bees!

In the next week, the EPA is expected to issue a decision on the pesticide Clothianidin -- which scientists believe is a major factor in the alarming decline in U.S honey bee populations, known as Colony Collapse Disorder.

Since 2006, one third of U.S honey bee populations have been dying off. One third. Every year. That's a terrible rate of species destruction on its own, but it's also a serious threat to our food supply. Honey bees play a crucial role by pollinating 71 of the 100 most common crops, which account for 90% of the world's food supply.1

More than 125,000 CREDO Activists joined the Pesticide Action Network and other groups this March in urging the EPA to suspend its approval of Clothianidin.

The EPA will be issuing a decision soon. If the agency doesn't act, it won't review Clothianidin again until 2018 -- and by then it could be too late for the bees.

Tell the EPA: Bee die-offs are an emergency. Ban the pesticide that's killing bees. Click here to automatically sign the petition.

While the causes of Colony Collapse disorder are complex, studies are increasingly pointing to the role played by pesticides like Clothianidin.

Produced by the German corporation Bayer CropScience, it is used as a treatment on crop seeds, including corn and canola, and works by expressing itself in the plants' pollen and nectar. Not coincidentally, these are some of honey bees' favorite sources of food.

Shockingly, Clothianidin was approved without any independent study verifying its safety. The Pesticide was conditionally approved for use on corn -- the largest crop in the U.S. - in 2003, and then fully approved by the EPA in 2010, on the basis of only one test conducted by Bayer, which EPA scientists later said was unsound and not sufficient to be the basis of an unconditional approval of the pesticide.2

Tell the EPA: Ban the pesticide that's killing bees. Click here to automatically sign the petition.

Clothianidin has already been banned in France, Italy, Slovenia, and Germany -- the home of Bayer -- but it continues to be applied to over 100 million acres here in the U.S., at the peril of bees and our ability to produce foods like apples, blueberries, almonds, pumpkins and dozens of other vital crops.

For the EPA to take action and suspend the use of Clothianidin it must declare bee die-offs to be an "imminent hazard." With massive continuing die-offs of the species that is a cornerstone of our crop production, it's clear that is the case.

Tell the EPA to protect honey bees and our food, not pesticide makers. It's time to ban Clothianidin and save the bees.

Originally posted to ZhenRen on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 07:00 AM PDT.

Also republished by Science Matters.

Your Email has been sent.
You must add at least one tag to this diary before publishing it.

Add keywords that describe this diary. Separate multiple keywords with commas.
Tagging tips - Search For Tags - Browse For Tags


More Tagging tips:

A tag is a way to search for this diary. If someone is searching for "Barack Obama," is this a diary they'd be trying to find?

Use a person's full name, without any title. Senator Obama may become President Obama, and Michelle Obama might run for office.

If your diary covers an election or elected official, use election tags, which are generally the state abbreviation followed by the office. CA-01 is the first district House seat. CA-Sen covers both senate races. NY-GOV covers the New York governor's race.

Tags do not compound: that is, "education reform" is a completely different tag from "education". A tag like "reform" alone is probably not meaningful.

Consider if one or more of these tags fits your diary: Civil Rights, Community, Congress, Culture, Economy, Education, Elections, Energy, Environment, Health Care, International, Labor, Law, Media, Meta, National Security, Science, Transportation, or White House. If your diary is specific to a state, consider adding the state (California, Texas, etc). Keep in mind, though, that there are many wonderful and important diaries that don't fit in any of these tags. Don't worry if yours doesn't.

You can add a private note to this diary when hotlisting it:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary from your hotlist?
Are you sure you want to remove your recommendation? You can only recommend a diary once, so you will not be able to re-recommend it afterwards.
Rescue this diary, and add a note:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary from Rescue?
Choose where to republish this diary. The diary will be added to the queue for that group. Publish it from the queue to make it appear.

You must be a member of a group to use this feature.

Add a quick update to your diary without changing the diary itself:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary?
(The diary will be removed from the site and returned to your drafts for further editing.)
(The diary will be removed.)
Are you sure you want to save these changes to the published diary?

Comment Preferences

  •  Tip jar (25+ / 0-)

    Well, I hope people sign the petition. Please do, for our little friends. I stayed up late writing this, and its way past my bedtime. I may or may not hang around.

    "In times of universal deceit, telling the truth will be a revolutionary act". -George Orwell

    by ZhenRen on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 02:50:15 AM PDT

  •  Are bees our canaries in the coal mine? (9+ / 0-)

    I think yes.

    Education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance.

    by Horace Boothroyd III on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 07:02:39 AM PDT

  •  Don't like honey (5+ / 0-)

    am allergic to bee stings
    But even I know that without bees most life on earth would cease to exist.

  •  Curious, are beekeepers using top bar hives (5+ / 0-)

    experiencing losses like commercial/amateur beekeepers using conventional hives?

    Even if I knew that tomorrow the world would go to pieces, I would still plant my apple tree. -Martin Luther

    by the fan man on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 07:26:07 AM PDT

    •  That's a good question (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Earth Bear, Agathena, joe shikspack

      Answered this below here.

      "In times of universal deceit, telling the truth will be a revolutionary act". -George Orwell

      by ZhenRen on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 07:37:28 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Thanks. Here's a great summation by a top bar (5+ / 0-)

        beekeeper. CCD to him is the culmination of many problems:

        Government, our USDA bee labs, and private university research, sponsored and controlled by agrichemical companies made rich, lately, by ubiquitous, unchecked neonicotinoids – farmers AND HOMEOWNERS using imidacloprid and other systemics in products like Gaucho and Merit - section 18 chemicals unregulated by the EPA, shown to compromise the insect nervous system but used in the US anyway! Now more popular than Round Up.

        Generational knowledge gaps in stewarding bees and subsistence lifestyle. In 2008 the USDA announced that by 2012 the U.S. will be importing at least 40% of its produce, mostly from China.

        Lack of forage. What’s going on here? Corn corn corn! Corn, cotton, and soy. The 3 most invasive plants in the country.

        Lack of biodiversity – poor nutrition for bees from monoculture farming- demands of moving hives

        Lack of genetic diversity- a hundred years of pushing for “better bees,” artificial breeding

        Oversized bees, overused comb

        Mites, pests, fungi, bacterium – often blamed as the problem, though are symptoms of an already compromised immunity, or what some call stress. The industry takes a “nuc the enemy” approach strengthening the mite genetic makeup - no trust in the bees ability to cope, no balance allowed to evolve – poisons used inside the hive showing fatal residuals and microbial imbalances. you all know that thymol makes the bee's wax cuticle more permeable to toxins, right?

        Less Invasive Beekeeping

        Even if I knew that tomorrow the world would go to pieces, I would still plant my apple tree. -Martin Luther

        by the fan man on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 07:48:56 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  There are many factors (3+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          Earth Bear, joe shikspack, DawnN

          Some we can control and remove as variables, some we can't. But pesticides, according to numerous studies, are a key factor, play a significant role in the problem and should be eliminated from this scenario.

          Top bare hives certainly won't improve on millions of years of evolution. They won't solve every problem as if a miracle cure.

          But they do introduce an environment closer to those of feral bees.

          "In times of universal deceit, telling the truth will be a revolutionary act". -George Orwell

          by ZhenRen on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 07:55:48 AM PDT

          [ Parent ]

    •  Here's more: (5+ / 0-)
      From 1972 to 2006, there was a dramatic reduction in the number of feral honey bees in the U.S. (now almost nonexistent)[26] and a significant though somewhat gradual decline in the number of colonies maintained by beekeepers. This decline includes the cumulative losses from all factors, such as urbanization, pesticide use, tracheal and Varroa mites, and commercial beekeepers' retiring and going out of business. However, in late 2006 and early 2007 the rate of attrition was alleged to have reached new proportions, and the term "colony collapse disorder" began to be used to describe this sudden rash of disappearances (sometimes referred to as Spontaneous Hive Collapse or the Mary Celeste Syndrome in the United Kingdom).[1][27]

      "In times of universal deceit, telling the truth will be a revolutionary act". -George Orwell

      by ZhenRen on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 07:46:48 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  signed, and thank you for posting this. n/t (4+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Earth Bear, ZhenRen, PeterHug, DawnN

    Panelist, Netroots Nation 2012, "Coal and the Grassroots Fight for Environmental Justice." @RL_Miller

    by RLMiller on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 07:27:11 AM PDT

  •  I can't beleive I'm up this early (6+ / 0-)

    on a Sunday... here on the West coast.

    That's a good question. But sadly, the answer is even feral bees, in the wild, are experiencing losses. Top bar hives have some advantages, but pesticides are pesticides. There is some evidence that bees far away from agricultural areas survive better.

    "In times of universal deceit, telling the truth will be a revolutionary act". -George Orwell

    by ZhenRen on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 07:34:17 AM PDT

  •  signed and (4+ / 0-)

    I was hobbiest beekeeper with 2 hives (Italian bees) and loved it.
    thanks for the link to Credo, signed it, and then tweeted the link.
    and thanks for your personal history with bees.

    We will never have true civilization until we have learned to recognize the rights of others. Will Rogers

    by Earth Bear on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 07:37:39 AM PDT

  •  The insidiousness of corporate corruption of (7+ / 0-)

    our government.

    All the harms facing global survival can traced back to it.

    Romney - his fingernails have never been anything but manicured.

    by Pescadero Bill on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 08:09:19 AM PDT

  •  Has the ban in Europe mitigated the loss of (4+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    ZhenRen, Renee, PeterHug, DawnN

    bee populations?

  •  thanks for this diary! (4+ / 0-)

    i have over the years become more and more cynical about the role of the epa and feel like even under obama it has too close a relationship with the polluters to do the job that it ought to be doing for the public.  my experience with them over the fracking issue suggests that they mistakenly consider polluters and the assorted money interests and worker interests that ally with polluters as part of the public whose interests must be protected.  my feeling is that if your invention, your investment or your work income imposes external costs on the rest of us, then for the purposes of protecting the public, your input in the process should not be a considered anywhere near equally to public health, safety or the health and safety of the environment.

    sadly, the epa's policy seems to cater to those who privatize the profits and socialize the external costs of their enterprises.

    i'm part of the 99% - america's largest minority

    by joe shikspack on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 09:06:08 AM PDT

  •  A similar pesticide (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    ZhenRen, DawnN, joe shikspack

    Imidacloprid, also a Bayer product, is the only pesticide found so far that is effective against the emerald ash borer, an invasive insect with no predators here, that is destroying ash trees across the country. It is injected into the soil, or directly into the tree, and kills the bugs through systemic action.

    Without some sort of intervention, ash trees will go the way of the Dutch elm, but we can't keep killing bees.

    "A lie is not the other side of a story; it's just a lie."

    by happy camper on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 01:31:26 PM PDT

  •  Thank you for sharing your personal story and for (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    ZhenRen, joe shikspack

    a compelling appeal to the readers here. The actions of the EPA are unconscionable. Additionally, I find myself unable to buy Bayer products, but am reminded now to write and let them know.

    Bees have been an essential good in my life, and I volunteer with a new project in my community documenting two bee yards; one kept "traditionally" (treated as recommended by Ag agencies) and the other kept without commercial chemical intervention and a shift to foundation-less frames.

    I hope we play a useful role in finding ways to assist the bees that give us so much. Meanwhile, a day "in the bees" renews my connection to life.

    The elders say we must let go of the shore, push off into the middle of
the river, keep our eyes open, and our heads above the water.
See who is in there with you and celebrate. (Hopi)

    by DawnN on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 06:42:19 PM PDT

    •  I'm using foundationless frames (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      DawnN, joe shikspack

      and so far it is working well. And using natural methods.

      I like what you said about bees renewing your connection to life. When I go out to the bees, it always refreshes and lifts me up, as if it were some form of therapy.

      "In times of universal deceit, telling the truth will be a revolutionary act". -George Orwell

      by ZhenRen on Sun Jun 24, 2012 at 08:26:13 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

Subscribe or Donate to support Daily Kos.

Click here for the mobile view of the site