Skip to main content

As we continue to understand the enormity of the tornado devastation, there are practical things that you can do right now to empower yourself and your loved ones. In addition to protecting your physical safety, you can take simple, low-cost measures to provide peace of mind for you and those beyond your locality who fear for your safety.

I invite you to add your own suggestions to this list, as it's not intended to be comprehensive, just a starting point for discussion.

1. Ensure that everyone in your household is carrying current identification and emergency contact information. While you might have a driver's license, college ID, or other form of identification, it's of little use in an emergency in terms of reaching your loved ones. I've created my own emergency cards as a Word document that I print and "laminate" using clear tape. They contain my name, two points of contact (each with telephone and e-mail) and a request that they be contacted in case of emergency. If you don't want to divulge home addresses, that's fine. Keep these emergency cards current! If your contact has new phone or e-mail due to a job change, unemployment, or move, make yourself and your family new cards with the new information. Make multiple copies and ensure that you and your loved ones carry these ID cards on their person!

2. Sign up for a First Aid and/or CPR class. While it's great to be surrounded by capable first responders, there may come a time when you could make the difference between life and death for someone in an emergency, or even in the course of daily life. Summertime poses plenty of hazards: someone choking at a barbeque, bee stings, or swimming pool mishaps. Your ability to respond calmly (even just to know to call 911) can be vitally important. If you've had these classes before, it might be wise to take a refresher, as methodologies for CPR have changed over time, and everyone can benefit from reminders on first aid techniques.

3. Avail yourself of useful apps to stay connected with loved ones. When cell phone lines are down or clogged with traffic, you'll want other means of staying in touch. Apps like Life360 can show you where your loved one (or at least their phone) is located at any given moment. Social media sites allow you to post updates that will keep your contacts apprised of your status during an emergency. Text messages can often get through when phone calls cannot, and they provide a record of time of contact. Do not, do not, repeat: do NOT text and drive! We have enough carnage without you getting into an accident.

4. Develop and rehearse a family, household, or business plan for emergency situations. Discuss ideas with the people you need to contact, and suggest ways to contact each other and - if necessary - meet at a designated location. The plans can provide for various situations: severe weather, terrorism, natural disasters, medical emergencies. Rehearse the plan with occasional drills. Kids can be a great help in designing these plans, and it's empowering for them to take on a proactive role. They're also more likely to embrace a plan that they helped to create.

5. Program important phone numbers into your mobile phone. Numbers for your local police, fire, poison control, your child's school, doctor's office, and all your key contacts. You can also designate a contact as "ICE" (In Case of Emergency" that someone can dial if you're unable to use your phone. Make sure that your kids, family members, friends, and co-workers have YOUR current phone number programmed into their phones. Also: print out or write a list of key phone numbers in case you have to use someone else's phone in an emergency.

6. Safeguard your pets. Make sure that your pet has up-to-date vaccinations, and that they're wearing a collar and ID tag. Make sure that the tag has your mobile phone number on it. You can easily add this information by writing it with a waterproof Sharpie on the existing tag or on another tag made from a piece of plastic. If you've been considering having your pet microchipped, this might be a good time to do it. If you're expecting to have to evacuate to a shelter, or to a friend or relative's home, figure out in advance whether you can bring your pets, and prepare a travel crate if needed and pack key items (food, heartworm pills, water, chew toys) in a "go bag".

7. Keep your car's gas tank filled. If you need to evacuate and power is out, stations will be inoperable. Make sure your car's windshield washer reservoir is filled, even if it's just with plain water. Driving through stormy areas, even through the aftermath, you'll need a clear windshield. Also, if you have a gasoline-powered generator, be sure you've got gasoline on hand and safely stored. Don't even think about running a generator in an unventilated garage, building, or confined space. Check any extension cords in advance for wear.

8. Prepare your home's "safe location". Many of us lack basements, and will need to shelter in interior rooms such as a pantry or windowless bathroom. Clear out that space of any unnecessary clutter and equip it with water, snack foods, flashlights or fluorescent lanterns, a portable radio, and something to sit on. You might be in there for a while.

9. Sign up now for e-mail or text alerts from your community and state emergency agencies, your kid's school, your business, and other entities who provide crisis updates. Many power companies and phone services offer apps that allow you to track outages. Weather apps such as iMap Weather Radio provide real-time alerts in preprogrammed locations of your choice, plus your "current location" on iPhone or Android platforms.

10. Keep in touch. Let people know where you are, whether you're staying or evacuating, how you've weathered the storm, who you're with. As you could see from yesterday's live blogs, many folks spent frantic hours unable to reach loved ones or verify that they were safe. Don't worry about "over communicating". Someone wants to know you're safe or where you can be found. Since your phone has limited battery life, ask each person you contact to let others know your situation. Working out a communication plan in advance can be a big help with this. Oh... and grab your mobile phone's charger when you head out the door.

Poll

What peril worries you the most this summer?

11%4 votes
26%9 votes
8%3 votes
2%1 votes
8%3 votes
20%7 votes
5%2 votes
5%2 votes
0%0 votes
0%0 votes
8%3 votes

| 34 votes | Vote | Results

EMAIL TO A FRIEND X
Your Email has been sent.
You must add at least one tag to this diary before publishing it.

Add keywords that describe this diary. Separate multiple keywords with commas.
Tagging tips - Search For Tags - Browse For Tags

?

More Tagging tips:

A tag is a way to search for this diary. If someone is searching for "Barack Obama," is this a diary they'd be trying to find?

Use a person's full name, without any title. Senator Obama may become President Obama, and Michelle Obama might run for office.

If your diary covers an election or elected official, use election tags, which are generally the state abbreviation followed by the office. CA-01 is the first district House seat. CA-Sen covers both senate races. NY-GOV covers the New York governor's race.

Tags do not compound: that is, "education reform" is a completely different tag from "education". A tag like "reform" alone is probably not meaningful.

Consider if one or more of these tags fits your diary: Civil Rights, Community, Congress, Culture, Economy, Education, Elections, Energy, Environment, Health Care, International, Labor, Law, Media, Meta, National Security, Science, Transportation, or White House. If your diary is specific to a state, consider adding the state (California, Texas, etc). Keep in mind, though, that there are many wonderful and important diaries that don't fit in any of these tags. Don't worry if yours doesn't.

You can add a private note to this diary when hotlisting it:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary from your hotlist?
Are you sure you want to remove your recommendation? You can only recommend a diary once, so you will not be able to re-recommend it afterwards.
Rescue this diary, and add a note:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary from Rescue?
Choose where to republish this diary. The diary will be added to the queue for that group. Publish it from the queue to make it appear.

You must be a member of a group to use this feature.

Add a quick update to your diary without changing the diary itself:
Are you sure you want to remove this diary?
(The diary will be removed from the site and returned to your drafts for further editing.)
(The diary will be removed.)
Are you sure you want to save these changes to the published diary?

Comment Preferences

  •  Since I live on San Diego... (10+ / 0-)

    I have several possibilities. Earthquake? Tidal Wave? Rising Ocean Level Due To Arctic Ice Melt?
    Nope.
    The #1 possible disaster can only be Darrell Issa.

    "I'm gonna dance between the raindrops"

    by IB JOHN on Tue May 21, 2013 at 07:34:30 AM PDT

  •  Another lamination option: clear contact paper. (10+ / 0-)

    Look for it in stores where they sell the shelf liners.

    I made a flip card for myself before a recent trip with my contact information, the contact information for the person I was meeting at my destination, emergency contact information for my next-of-kin, and phone numbers for other people I might need to call while I was there.

    If my phone got dropped somewhere, or if I'd left it where I was staying and not had access to the stored contacts during the day, I could have used any phone to call those people.

    It also meant that if anything happened to me, whoever found me would have had emergency contact information AND how to contact someone local who knew who I was. And something of a means of that person proving that yes I had intended to be with him in town and that he was not a stranger should anything happen and he need to be a source of information about me in an immediately unfolding emergency.

    Prayers and best wishes to those in Boston, in Texas, and for this week to be over without anything else happening.

    by Cassandra Waites on Tue May 21, 2013 at 07:37:58 AM PDT

    •  Good advice, my fellow Cassandra (9+ / 0-)

      I also e-mail information to my family regarding any travels with flight numbers, hotel info, people to contact if I can't be reached. Since airlines will not give out information as to whether a person is actually on a given flight, I also text family once I've boarded and when I land. My husband does the same when I'm the one waiting nervously at home and he's halfway around the world. Little habits like this help a lot.

      Those who do not understand history are condemned to repeat it... in summer school.

      by cassandracarolina on Tue May 21, 2013 at 07:42:03 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Oh, did I ever contact. (2+ / 0-)

        Text messages to one person and phone calls to two on landing with the same on reaching the departure gates for connecting flights, texts to one and calls to one (who would contact the other) on boarding.

        I left a copy of the confirmation e-ticket email with family members, had one copy to check-in with at the airport and a spare on me just in case, a pdf print-out in a flash drive tucked in my personal item bag, and the original email sitting in my email account.

        Ended up having to call everyone AGAIN about a connecting flight because of an unannounced flight delay that never showed up on the airline website or the official flight time displays at the airport, just so they'd all know why I wasn't giving boarding notification yet.

        As I explained it to everyone, if I go missing on a trip? I want everyone to have a pretty decent idea of where to start looking for me.

        I also kept transit maps on me for the city I was in while I was away, so I'd have half a chance of getting back to where I was staying if I got separated from the local contact I was staying with while at the same time being phoneless, or at the very least to a major transit station where I could have told authorities 'I was separated from my companion, he'll be looking for me, here is who I am, there's no need for a full-blown missing persons search for me if he reports me missing' and sat tight in a visible spot since practically all ways for HIM to get back went through that same station.

        Prayers and best wishes to those in Boston, in Texas, and for this week to be over without anything else happening.

        by Cassandra Waites on Tue May 21, 2013 at 08:00:41 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

    •  Excellent, Cassandra Waites (5+ / 0-)

      Very well thought out plan of action.

      "Religion is what keeps the poor from murdering the rich."--Napoleon

      by Diana in NoVa on Tue May 21, 2013 at 07:51:17 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  Excellent advice, CC! (12+ / 0-)

    I would add that it's a good idea to keep a bugout bag handy and up to date.  The idea comes from military units that have to take off at a moment's notice and has (unfortunately) been popularized by the wingnut survivalists.  Their adoption of the concept doesn't make its usefulness any less valid.

    It should contain the stuff you absolutely have to have: a few days' worth of medicines (especially for people with chronic conditions), a small first aid kit, a bottle or two of water, socks, batteries, flashlight, change of underwear, cash, etc.  The idea of having something to grab on your way out the door can be the difference between enduring in misery and coming through in relative comfort.

    "I speak the truth, not as much as I would, but as much as I dare, and I dare a little the more, as I grow older." --Montaigne

    by DrLori on Tue May 21, 2013 at 07:50:50 AM PDT

  •  Great tips, cassandracarolina! (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    cassandracarolina, weck, blue91

    Thank you for this.  

    "Religion is what keeps the poor from murdering the rich."--Napoleon

    by Diana in NoVa on Tue May 21, 2013 at 07:51:48 AM PDT

    •  Thanks, Diana in NoVa (5+ / 0-)

      There are so many things that would help if dealt with in advance.

      Scanning copies of insurance policies, lists of your belongings that might need to be replaced, copies of irreplaceable photos...

      I've considered running a drill where my husband and I would have 5 minutes to grab what we needed and be in the car and out the door.

      Those who do not understand history are condemned to repeat it... in summer school.

      by cassandracarolina on Tue May 21, 2013 at 07:58:13 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Cassandra, this very mornning Dropbox kindly (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        cassandracarolina, BachFan

        offered to upload ALL my photos to its mysterious cyberpalace.  I accepted with gratitude.

        Now, if I could just figure out how to upload my non-image files to Dropbox, I'd be in good shape.  My external hard drive has gone on strike and refuses to back up my files, but I'm not technical enough to fix it.  So it would be a waste of time to grab it and flee if a disaster struck.

        The five-minute drill is a good idea--we'd have to grab the strongbox containing passports, birth certificates, et al., along with the dog and his files. He's microchipped, but we have to keep his rabies tag and dog license in a file folder because he has a distressing habit of removing his collar.

        "Religion is what keeps the poor from murdering the rich."--Napoleon

        by Diana in NoVa on Tue May 21, 2013 at 08:06:41 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  There are some other cloud drive providers (3+ / 0-)

          that will store any sort of files. In a pinch, you can e-mail them to yourself and/or save them on the increasingly cheap USB drives. Attach the drive to the key ring with your car keys or purse or go-bag to ensure you'll have it with you (you might want to password-protect the files in case of theft!)

          Those who do not understand history are condemned to repeat it... in summer school.

          by cassandracarolina on Tue May 21, 2013 at 08:15:14 AM PDT

          [ Parent ]

          •  Spideroak does client-side encryption, (1+ / 0-)
            Recommended by:
            cassandracarolina

            making them a bit safer for storing documents like insurance information.

            They'll store anything in a folder, just tell it which locations you want synced to storage.

            Prayers and best wishes to those in Boston, in Texas, and for this week to be over without anything else happening.

            by Cassandra Waites on Tue May 21, 2013 at 08:22:18 AM PDT

            [ Parent ]

  •  It's good to live in Denver (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    cassandracarolina, llywrch

    Tornadoes are rare, hurricanes are impossible, wildfires stay up in the mountains, earthquakes are rare and small, floods are infrequent and mostly up in the mountains.

    I voted "vehicle accident" because I'll be making road trips this summer.

    Economics is a social *science*. Can we base future economic decisions on math?

    by blue aardvark on Tue May 21, 2013 at 08:26:34 AM PDT

    •  Vehicle accident is the highest probability (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      blue aardvark, Eyesbright

      one for me, as we will be making several Gulf-coast journeys between TX and NC. My former company's data center was in the Denver area for the reasons you've cited.

      Those who do not understand history are condemned to repeat it... in summer school.

      by cassandracarolina on Tue May 21, 2013 at 08:27:58 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  There is also a reason why Cheyenne (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        cassandracarolina, VeggiElaine

        Mountain is where they put the Soviet Missile Warning system. Mother Nature is not going to cause too many problems aside from blizzards. Imagine if it were in, say, San Jose. Or Miami.

        Of course, the nice convenient mountain to provide 5,000 feet of granite as a shield against nukes is also useful ;-p

        Economics is a social *science*. Can we base future economic decisions on math?

        by blue aardvark on Tue May 21, 2013 at 08:31:10 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

  •  Thank you for the great tips. (5+ / 0-)

    I'd also like to add to number 10 that you chose a person living out of state to contact when something happens.

    For example: we all agree to call my cousin in PA if there is a big earthquake in CA. You might have a better chance getting through to a place where there is not heavy communication traffic.

    Take back the House in 2014!!!! ( 50-state strategy needed)

    by mungley on Tue May 21, 2013 at 08:32:24 AM PDT

  •  You've wisely mentioned the many cell phone uses. (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    cassandracarolina, BachFan

    Assure it's charged up, and have both 110V home & 12V auto chargers with it.

    Living the austerity dream.

    by jwinIL14 on Tue May 21, 2013 at 08:46:51 AM PDT

    •  I used to keep a spare battery for my BlackBerry (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      jwinIL14, BachFan

      charged up as well. A great help when we had no power during Hurricane Ike. There are also solar chargers available nowadays that might be worth looking into.

      Those who do not understand history are condemned to repeat it... in summer school.

      by cassandracarolina on Tue May 21, 2013 at 08:50:09 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  We have a couple of USB battery backups (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        cassandracarolina, BachFan

        I use one for my Kindle when the battery gets low and I don't want to get out of bed to recharge it. The backup pack can later be recharged by plugging into an AC-->USB plug. The pack holds its power for ages so it's really useful. It'll provide power for any small device with a USB port.

        My husband has a model with more oomph in it. He uses it when he's traveling for cell phone power and his Nook. You can get such a device for laptop backup but we haven't invested in that one. He can usually plug his laptop in somewhere, carries plug adapters for overseas systems.

        We have a small solar panel that will also recharge the battery packs, which is nifty but not all that useful for us, frankly. Our disasters are likely to be short-term ferocious weather, including tornadoes and power outages are usually brief. If the house is gone, we go somewhere else where there's AC, lol. Still, on principle I'm glad to have this.

        •  Thanks for this useful info, sillia (4+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          Jakkalbessie, llywrch, Eyesbright, sillia

          During Hurricane Ike, power came back on in strange ways. One side of a street would be back in business, while the other would face another day or more without power. Luckily a work colleague lived in our development and got his power back on, so we camped out there for "gadget charging" visits.

          Meanwhile, he loaned out his generator to a friend of his whose small business was still without power. A neighbor across the street, who'd always treated my colleague with disdain, came over to complain that HE should have gotten the generator instead of someone else. Yeah, right.

          Most people behaved well in the face of the strain (Houston without air conditioning for some people as long as 2-3 weeks). But there's always someone ;-)

          Those who do not understand history are condemned to repeat it... in summer school.

          by cassandracarolina on Tue May 21, 2013 at 11:03:44 AM PDT

          [ Parent ]

  •  Some things we have done (4+ / 0-)

    to add to your list.

    We live in Hudson Valley NY which has been hit by tornados, n'easters, floods, ice storms and hurricanes.

    We have a back up generator which is natural gas (frequent power outages - and without power our well won't pump)

    We have a hand crank radio, which also has a flashlight.

    We keep fresh water on hand in gallon jugs, for us, and our dogs and cats in case the well gets contaminated.  

    We have a supply of dried beans and canned foodstuffs too.

    Medications - have a back up supply of meds that husband and I take daily.

    Great diary - thank you.  Learned some new things to implement.

    Join us on the Black Kos front porch to review news and views written from a black pov—everyone is welcome.

    by Denise Oliver Velez on Tue May 21, 2013 at 08:54:47 AM PDT

    •  Thanks for these great suggestions, Denise (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Eyesbright

      Our NC house has a "smart" generator run on propane. It can power everything, just not all at once, and allows you to set priorities for what's important and cycles things on and off to maintain a safe load.

      We also have 8 webcams tied into our ADT Pulse system so we can monitor the house remotely, inside and out, from anywhere on computer, iPad, or iPhone. Talk about peace of mind! There are frequent storms including occasional tornadoes, so this is worth every penny to me.

      We also have Earth's Best Neighbors, who keep us posted with e-mails and texts. There's no app that can replace caring people!

      Those who do not understand history are condemned to repeat it... in summer school.

      by cassandracarolina on Tue May 21, 2013 at 09:07:02 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  I'm ready for weather, just not TED CRUZ! (4+ / 0-)

    As your fellow Texan, I am not ready for the next batch he dishes out.  Peril, indeed!

    Hand-crank weather radio is a good idea, too.  Mine has an outlet to charge a phone.  Bring a pry-bar, claw hammer, geology pick or something like it (hatchet?) into the interior room, so you can open the jammed door or window, or even chop or dig out after the storm is over.

    Thanks for all the ideas.  Now, how to make them sink in for one of those "invulnerable" 18-yo high school seniors?  Suggestions welcome.  Maybe the photos from OK will make an impression.

    I'm part of the "bedwetting bunch of website Democrat base people (DKos)." - Rush Limbaugh, 10/16/2012 Torture is Wrong! We live near W so you don't have to. Send love.

    by tom 47 on Tue May 21, 2013 at 09:47:14 AM PDT

    •  As a geologist, I commend the "geology pick" (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Jakkalbessie, Eyesbright, BachFan, tom 47

      suggestion.

      As far as getting high school kids to grasp this, photos won't make a dent - they're already way too jaded. But... I'd suggest two things:

      1. Get them actively involved in some sort of volunteer activity (not necessarily in Moore, but maybe collecting work gloves and supplies to send there).

      2. Have THEM work up a safety plan and some drills for your home or office. Look around outdoors at what items could become deadly projectiles. Have them collect everything they want to take in a "5-minute" drill. Any plan that they work will open their eyes to all that they need to think about.

      Don't even get me started on why all high school kids are not taught first aid and CPR!

      Those who do not understand history are condemned to repeat it... in summer school.

      by cassandracarolina on Tue May 21, 2013 at 09:52:51 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Thanks, cassandra, and my request was only (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        cassandracarolina

        partly in jest.  He's a good kid, just thinner than I care for on looking out for his own hide sometimes.  

        His school shut early and he came home and actually kept on eye on things, including putting the cats in the laundry room and watching for loose objects in the yard and on the patio.  Looks like it's finally calming down there in D-FW.  I'm traveling and in another time zone, so doing this remotely...

        I'm part of the "bedwetting bunch of website Democrat base people (DKos)." - Rush Limbaugh, 10/16/2012 Torture is Wrong! We live near W so you don't have to. Send love.

        by tom 47 on Tue May 21, 2013 at 02:33:49 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  Being away from one's home can be (0+ / 0-)

          nerve wracking at times like these. I have a couple of web cams, some fixed, some controllable, that enable me to see what's happening indoors and out. A wonderful use of technology for aging control freaks like me ;-)

          Stay safe in your travels, and may storms misplace your home address!

          Those who do not understand history are condemned to repeat it... in summer school.

          by cassandracarolina on Tue May 21, 2013 at 02:40:41 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

  •  Keep a good bug-out list (4+ / 0-)

    I have a nice tub with our tornado-shelter supplies in it. It sits in the laundry room which is on the way to our safest spot, ready to grab. In that tub is also a printout of MY official emergency list. Each spring as the season gets going, I pull the list out and take one minute to read through it and review what's in the tub. Check the batteries, replace snack items, put flashlights back in if they've been "borrowed", etc.

    There are a few items on the list such as some chair cushions to sit on, heavy boots, cell phone, etc. which don't live in the tub. During bad weather I will often move these items to a spot where they will be easy to grab. In any case, you can make part of the list "storage items" and part of it "gather-up items". Do not leave any thinking for when the emergency happens.

    I always read diaries such as yours and it is amazing how often I will see a good idea that can be added to my list. Just last year I added heavy work gloves to the tub. For digging ourselves out, duh! Why didn't I think of that?? And a loud whistle, to help someone find you in the rubble.

    If your list (of things which are useful in your particular case) is easy to find and frequently updated, you can quickly prepare for emergencies and then respond to them quickly without having to think everything through during a stressful or scary time.

    •  The list is hugely important (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      sillia, Eyesbright, BachFan

      I'd like to think I'd remember everything, but in a real panic, I doubt that. Having a lot of the "paperwork" stored in the cloud is a help, but the tangible items are often distributed across rooms (and in vehicles).

      Good on ya for checking everything each spring. Nothing like dining on 3-year old stale meal bars if you left them there unreplaced!

      Those who do not understand history are condemned to repeat it... in summer school.

      by cassandracarolina on Tue May 21, 2013 at 11:06:09 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  Be informed (3+ / 0-)

    Washington State just put up a new interactive site with earthquake scenarios for nearly every part of the state.

    We're in a high forest fire danger area, and had a fire cross our property (the year before we bought it) in 1994, and evacuated for a week last fall because of a fire a half-mile away. Despite over 200 fires spawned by a lightning storm in WA last fall, only a couple outbuildings were lost.

    But sadly, a few weeks ago a house and a trailer were lost in a small (under 10 acre) grass fire. If you live anywhere where wildfire is a danger, you should make your house fire safe by following the recommendations at the Firewise web site.

    No matter how cynical you become, it's never enough to keep up - Lily Tomlin

    by badger on Tue May 21, 2013 at 11:28:31 AM PDT

    •  Great advice, badger (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      BachFan

      Here in Texas, open burning is still practiced by many, and it is truly scary. We have had grass fires within a few miles of our home, fanned by high winds and very dry conditions.

      The community where we built our retirement home in NC is a Firewise Community, and they are quite strict about construction methods and landscaping, even down to the species of plants that would best maintain safe conditions. I'd like to see that sort of thing proliferate in high fire risk areas.

      Those who do not understand history are condemned to repeat it... in summer school.

      by cassandracarolina on Tue May 21, 2013 at 11:54:23 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

Subscribe or Donate to support Daily Kos.

Click here for the mobile view of the site