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This is the eleventh diary in my Expanding the National Parks series. This week, I'm in Hawaii, the Aloha state. Hawaii is a small state, covering  under 6500 miles in land area. despite this Hawaii ranks high on the list of states in terms of territory protected by the feds, 19.4% of the state is protected, good for 13th in the country. Hawaii has 2 national parks, 2 national monuments, 11 wildlife refuges, and 5 historical sites. As with the other states I will propose adding more areas to Hawaii's tally.

This is the eleventh diary in my Expanding the National Parks series. This week, I'm in Hawaii, the Aloha state. Hawaii is a small state, covering  under 6500 miles in land area. despite this Hawaii ranks high on the list of states in terms of territory protected by the feds, 19.4% of the state is protected, good for 13th in the country. Hawaii has 2 national parks, 2 national monuments, 11 wildlife refuges, and 5 historical sites. As with the other states I will propose adding more areas to Hawaii's tally.

Hawaii

Total Area 10 931 sq miles
Land Area 6 423 sq miles
Water Area 4 508 sq miles
 coastline 750 sq miles
Additional monuments -3

NATIONAL PARKS-2

* Haleakala Established 1961 Covers 33 265 acres
First set aside as part of Hawaii National Park in 1916, Haleakala was split off from Hawaii Volcanoes in 1961, and became a separate park. It was renamed in 2000 to it current name. Haleakala is  Hawaiian for "house of the sun'. The park is home to some of the clearest skies in the country , and is a magnet for amateur astronomers, the Haleakala Observatory is located here and is run by the Hawaii Institute for  Astronomy, More than 19000 acres of the park is wilderness and 1.45 million people visited in 2012.

* Hawaii Volcanoes Established 1916 Covers 323 431 acres
The Larger of Hawaii's national parks, Volcanoes was established in 1916, the 11th national park in the system, the first in a territory (as Hawaii was not a state at the time). The park protects Kilauea  and Muana Loa the worlds tallest volcano and mountain, from its base Mauna Loa is over 33000 feet tall. Kiluaea is the worlds most active volcano, it has been erupting since 1983, and a large portion of the park is covered in lava from its eruptions.Half of the park is wilderness, and the environment ranges from rainforest to desert.. the park was selected to represent Hawaii in the National Park Quarters collection, it was the fourth quarter released in 2012. Nearly 1.5 million people visited in 2012.

NATIONAL MONUMENTS-2

* Papahanaumokuakea Marine Established 2006 Covers 89,600,000 acres
The largest monument in the system, covering an area roughly the size of Montana, it was originally called the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands monument when President Bush set it aside 2006. It was renamed in 2007 to its current name. while much of the area within the monument was already a reserve, upgrading it to a monument, provided stronger and permanent protection. the monument includes the Battle of Midway National Memorial, as well as the Midway Island and Hawaiian Islands Wildlife refuges. the area was granted Specially Sensitive status in 2011, limiting the amount of human interaction and visitors the monument receives.

* World War II Valor in the Pacific Established 2008 Covers 6310 acres( In AK, CA, and HI)
Hawaii's portion of the monument, includes the memorials for the Arizona , Utah and Oklahoma (although not the ships themselves), part of Battlefield Row and some of the Petty Officer bungalows on Ford Island. 1.75 million people visited in 2012

WILDLIFE REFUGES-11

* Hakalau Forest Established 1985 overs 38 047 acres
part of the Big Island WR Complex (Along with Kona Forest), Halalau protects some of the largest remaining strands of morane forest in the state. this part of the refuge sees 250 inches of rain a year, making it one of the wettest area in the state. Most of the refuge is closed to the public to protect the many endangered plants and animals that live in the refuge.the only area open to the public, the Upper Maulua section,  is only open through reservation.

* Hanalei Established 1972 Covers 917 acres
Set aside to protect habitat for the Hawaiian Duck and Goose as well as other endangered plants and animals. In order to protect the habitat and wildlife the refuge is closed to the public save for those who buy Special permits to tour the area.

* Hawaiian Islands  Established 1909 Covers 254 418 acres
 The oldest and largest of Hawaii's 11 WRs, the refuge was originally  created as a reserve by Theodore Roosevelt in 1909 to protect seabirds and their  habitat from overharvesting. it was upgraded to a refuge in 1940 by Franklin Roosevelt and its area was incorporated into the Northwestern Hawaiian Island National Monument when it was created in 2006. the refuge is still managed by the FWS and it is counted as a separate entity from the monument surrounding it.

* Huleia Established 1973 covers 241 acres
Set aside to preserve habitat for Hawaiian birds such as the Hawaiian Stilt, Hawaiian Duck, Hawaiian Coot and Hawaiian Gallinule, the refuge is closed to the public to preserve the habitat and protect the birds.

* James Campbell Established 1976 Covers 1100 acres
Created from the estate of a wealthy Hawaiian, the refuge protects some of the last remaining wetlands on Oahu. Originally leased from the James Campbell estate when created in 1976, the refuge covered 270 at first, but when the estate announced its intentions to sell off more land, Congress approved buying a good portion of the land, raising the area of the refuge to 1100 acres, Due to its small size and the rare birds that live in the refuge, the refuge is closed to the public, except for special reservations.

* Kakahaia Established 1977 Covers 44 acres
 The smallest refuge in Hawaii, Kakahaia is located on Molokai, and is home to the Hawaiian Coot and Hawaiian Stilt as well as other endemic wildlife, to protect the birds the interior part of the refuge is closed to the public.

* Kealia Pond Established 1992 Covers 691 acres
set aside initially in 1953, Kealia pond is home to the Hawaiian Stilt and the black-crowned Night Heron. the refuges name means ' salt-encrusted place'. nearly 3000 people visit the refuge each year.

* Kilauea Point Established 1985 covers 203 acres
Set Aside to protect migratory and endemic seabirds, Kilauea is home to one of the largest numbers of seabirds in the state. It is the most visited refuge in the state, receiving more than 500000 visitors annually.

* Kona Forest Established 1997 Covers 5300 acres
Managed as a unit with  Hakalau Forest, Kona Forest lies on the slopes of Mauna Loa and is drier in climate than Hakalau. It is closed to the public to protect the wildlife and species in the forest, particularly the alala which is down to 50 birds.

* Oahu Forest Established 2000 Covers 4525 acres
Located on the island of Oahu, the refuge provides home for 15 endangered species including four species of tree snails. to protect the habitat for plants and animals, the refuge is closed to the public.

* Pearl Harbor Established 1972 Covers 102 acres
 made up of three small units- the Waiawa, Honouliuli and Kalaeloa, Pearl Harbor protects some of the last wetlands in the island of Oahu. the Waiawa and Honouliuli Units are managed in cooperation with the Navy and are located  near the Valor in the Pacific NM.

 HISTORIC SITES, MEMORIALS AND OTHER NPS UNITS-5

* Kalaupapa NHP Established 1980 covers 10779 acres
preserves the buildings used to house lepers on Molokai, and the settlements of Kalupapa and Kalawao, including the church of St Philomena where Saint Father Damien worked and cared for those suffering with leprosy. He himself caught the disease and died of it at the age of 49, he was canonized as a saint in 2009. nearly 59000 people visited the park in 2012.

* Kaloko-Honokohau NHP Established 1978 Covers 1161 acres
Located on Hawaii island,  the park was set aside to protect and preserve artifacts of native Hawaiian culture, the parks name name refers to two of four land divisions within the the park. Kaloko means 'the pond' and refers to series of ponds in the northern part of the park . Honokohau means 'bay drawing dew' and refers to an ancient settlement in the southern part of the park. 153000 people visited in 2012.

* Pu'ukohola Heiau NHS Established 1966 Covers 77 acres
 The smallest of Hawaii's historic parks or sites, the site protects the last Ancient Hawaii Temple, which means 'Temple on the Hill of the Whale' and was built by King Kamehameha in roughly a year. The temple itself is closed to the public due to it containing human remains. 134000 people visited last year.

* Pu'uhonoua o Honaunau NHP Established 1955 covers 420 acres
 Originally named City of Refuge, the site protects the remains of an ancient temple where Hawaiians who broken ancient laws and who faxed death could come to the temple and find sanctuary. the temple was looted by Lord George Bryon in 1825 and was torn down a couple years later. Today recreations of the temple are present, and 442000 people visited in 2012.

* Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale NMS Established 1992 Covers 896000 acres
 Sets aside much of Hawaiis waters to protect its corals reefs and humpback whales who migrate to the area in the thousands. unlike other marine sanctuaries, dumping is permitted in the sanctuary.

ADDITIONAL MONUMENTS-3

* Hawaii Coastal
Sets aside all waters along the coastline of Hawaii out to 20miles, sets aside open lands on the islands up to 10 miles in
 Estimated area 14, 400, 000 acres
Mauna Kea
 Protects the highest point in Hawaii. Estimated area 100000 acres
Ka'ena Point
 sets aside the lands ranging from the end of route 390 to the land in-between Makua Military Reservation and Dillingham Airfield. estimated area 5000 acres

And thees it is my diary of Hawaii is complete. Next time I'll be visiting Idaho. As always, input, comments and concerns are welcome.

Originally posted to MorrellWI1983 on Fri Feb 07, 2014 at 03:36 PM PST.

Also republished by DK GreenRoots and National Parks and Wildlife Refuges.

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