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Cornell researchers just published an interesting paper with a dull sounding title: Assessment and risk analysis of casing and cement impairment in oil and gas wells in  Pennsylvania, 2000–2012. In other words, how often does well structural integrity fail, potentially allowing methane to escape from its ass annulus into groundwater or the atmosphere?

The researchers catalogued incident reports filed with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. This is publicly available data so the analyses are easily replicated.

Pennsylvania state inspection records show compromised cement and/or casing integrity in 0.7–9.1% of the active oil and gas wells drilled since 2000, with a 1.6- to 2.7-fold higher risk in unconventional wells spudded since 2009 relative to conventional well types. Hazard modeling suggests that the cumulative loss of structural integrity in wells across the state may actually be slightly higher than this, and upward of 12% for unconventional wells drilled since January 2009. This wide range of estimates is influenced by significantly higher rates of impairment in wells spudded in the NE counties of the state (average of 12.5%, range: 2.2–50%), with predicted cumulative hazards exceeding 40% (Figs. 5 and 6).
They found that unconventional wells (horizontally fractured) drilled after 2009 had a failure rate of 12%. That means methane escaping from sloppy drilling practices during the great fracking boom may be much worse than feared.

Is this failure cluster a canary in the proverbial gas mine or just a hangover from the hands-off enforcement policy of the Corbett administration? Answering that question will require more data.

This study presents the state of structural integrity loss in oil and gas wells over a 13-y period in the state of Pennsylvania as inferred from publicly available data, while also presenting a risk assessment model of future performance. It should be a priority to update and validate this model with well monitoring and evaluation data reported to the PADEP from the industry as they are collected. Finally, although this study discusses one possible primary mechanism of methane migration to groundwater aquifers and fugitive emissions to the atmosphere, more studies are needed to investigate the association between the structural integrity loss in oil and gas wells and tthese unwanted events.

These data contradict claims by the drilling industry that horizontal fracturing is "safe." In the real world, the failure rate in these Pennsylvania wells has been unacceptably high, especially in the northeast quadrant of the state that has been the epicenter of the shale gas boom.

Cementing operations have long been known as the achilles heel of shale drilling operations. Lax regulations and financial incentives to cut corners have surprisingly led to many preventable catastrophes. The data from Pennsylvania indicate that sloppy cementing is far too common in an industry that prioritizes production over safety.

The Associated Press was kind enough to round up a few industry lobbyists to comment on the study.

Here is some run-of-the-mill ad hominem directed at Anthony Ingraffea, the lead author of the study.

The research was criticized by the energy industry. Marcellus Shale Coalition spokesman Travis Windle said it reflects Ingraffea's "clear pattern of playing fast and loose with the facts."
Playing loose with the facts? Did I mention that the data are from publicly available sources and the analyses are easy to replicate? The record of well failure in Pennsylvania since the shale gas boom began is disgraceful.

Chris Tucker from the industry astroturf organization Energy in Depth also weighed in.

Chris Tucker, spokesman for industry-supported group Energy In Depth, said what they measured may not be leaks but state inspectors detecting pressure buildup.

"The trick these researchers are pulling here is conflating pressure with leakage, trying to convince folks that the mere existence of the former is evidence of the latter," Tucker wrote in an email.

Since the state did not measure methane migration, the extent of methane leaking from well structural failures is unknown and the industry should be presumed blameless. It is perverse logic. The failure rate of horizontally fractured wells in Pennsylvania over the past 5 years is a disgrace. The question is not whether methane escaped from these structural failures but rather how much.

Tucker is quite a character. A few years ago, he even encouraged public relations firms to study military counter-insurgency manuals in dealing with drilling opponents. Apparently it was only "a joke."

Chris Tucker, the spokesperson for Energy in Depth (EID) defended the statement by saying it was meant only as a joke, and that "there are no black helicopters here. ... We go to township meetings, and we hear what people have to say."

But Tucker is heavily involved in the "counterinsurgency," working for one of the industry's many tentacles of its spin campaign. EID is a Washington-based, industry-funded front group that attacks people concerned about the dangers of fracking and the cocktail of toxic substances being used in the drilling processes. A report released last month by Common Cause notes that the fracking industry gave $20.5 million to current members of Congress and has spent at least $700 million on lobbying over the past decade. It has also spent an untold sum on PR campaigns targeting the public.

Reality has been unkind to the industry lately. Just last week a study published in the prestigious journal Science found more evidence that injecting fracking waste water into underground wells is associated with earthquake swarms. Much of the increased seismic activity was traced to a small number of high volume wastewater injection wells. It is part of a larger trend linking increased seismic activity to wastewater injection wells.

At least the fracking industry has a sense of humor. They just released a new "good neighbor" policy. It is not about better cementing and safety procedures. That would be inconvenient. The key is better "community engagement." In other words, the industry should lie through their fucking teeth to keep the pesky public at bay.

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Comment Preferences

  •  'best practices' etcetcetc... (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    DWG, marina, Roger Fox

    couldn't find an online version of a radio debate featured on KCLU last sunday, I could not find a playlist, but it was a debate featuring a Sacramento O/G lobbyist and Sen Paveley (D-CAL) state senator whose bill is trying to get transparency from the o/G companies about fracking, when, where, what etc.

    Right now there is none.

    It was a good debate of you count well rehearsed talking points from the two main people.

    At one point he said 'we drill wells to several thousand feet sometimes, these water aquifers are found at a few hundred feet (as if finding and total depth are the same and it's a bag with no lateral access from anywhere, no uplifted formations, no cracks.) He said' we use the latest methods and materials we are required to so as to ensure there is no leakage either way', cause that would cost us money etcetc...

    Everybody in the audience laughed at him.

    I tried to find it at KCLU, I couldn't even find the program name that now I can't remember, 6 -8pm last sunday, about.

    Emails to Pavely's office were returned as I am not in her district, I am next door. It's worth finding..

    Other panelists threw this talking point sarcastically right back at him, recent BP experience will never be forgotten nor forgiven.

    This machine kills Fascists.

    by KenBee on Fri Jul 11, 2014 at 04:23:57 PM PDT

  •  An indication of sustained casing pressure (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    marina

    does not mean that a well is leaking or discharging gases to the atmosphere.

  •  This is a big deal (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    DWG, WakeUpNeo, marina

    Lots of people, even on the left, tout natural gas as a "bridge fuel" that can help us along the path to decarbonization.  But if the leakage rate from wells (active or otherwise) is high enough, then natural gas might actually be worse for the climate than coal.

    The studies to date on well leakage are not promising.  Thanks for the diary.

    The next Noah will work a short shift. - Charles Bowden

    by Scott in NAZ on Fri Jul 11, 2014 at 06:25:48 PM PDT

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